Oil application and expected rains Sunday-Monday

By Terence Bradshaw

It didn’t take long after I posted my last recommendations for someone to point out to me that it’s unlikely that apple scab ascospores can be released through two inches of snow. Point taken. This cool weather has put things into that slow, on-hold pattern a bit, but activity will pick up today and tomorrow as temperatures get into the 50s. In warmer southern Vermont predicted ascospore maturity is getting up around 10%, which is when we should be taking scab more seriously. In the Champlain Valley, where ascospore maturity is estimated around 5-7%, buds appear to be hovering around the half-inch green stage. Upland and inland, still at silver tip. Rains Sunday and Monday are expected to bring an infection period, so orchards with significant tissue exposed should be covered with a fungicide in the next two days.

Weather is looking good for oil application today and tomorrow, assuming that your site isn’t expecting freezing weather in the next couple of days. I am a proponent for putting oil on as late as possible, up to tight cluster or even pink. The rate should be adjusted down as buds open more: 2-3 gallons per 100 gallons water (straight % in tank, not adjusted for tree for volume or per acre) is good from dormant through green tip; 2 % GT-tight cluster; and 1% as you approach pink. Oil should be put on dilute- slow down and open up your nozzles if you can. For most orchards, 100 gallons of water per acre should be the minimum for applying oil. That means recalibrating your sprayer in many cases.

For growers with substantial bud development and concern about cold temperatures the past week, you may want to pinch some buds and look for browning in the developing ovaries…or not. There’s not much you’ll do about it now, anyway, but come bloom, it would be wise to observe flowers and be ready to adjust thinning if more than 20-30% damage is observed. I’m pretty hopeful that most sites have been fine, the critical temperature for 90% bud kill at tight cluster is 21°F, although some damage may be seen at 28. For half inch green, we can expect buds to be all right down as low as 23 or even colder. Trees at silver or green tip should be fine. Remember, if you suspect bud damage from cold temperatures, it is important to contact you crop insurance agent ASAP to get the claims process started.

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

Grape Grower Webinars Planned for April 22 and May 13

By Terence Bradshaw

Passing on information on two informative webinars that local growers should find useful.- TB

The University of Minnesota Extension and University of Wisconsin-Madison Division of Extension are teaming up to offer two webinars/Q&A sessions for grape growers in April and May. The goal of these events is to help growers refine their early season vineyard management plan and ask questions. We will focus on key tasks and sprays that must be completed between bud swell and bloom.

In the first 30 minutes of each webinar, you will hear from UMN and UW experts on topics like insect, disease, and weed management; soil fertility; and other critical vineyard tasks like vine planting technique. The second 30 minutes is reserved for open Question and Answer time.

April 22 @ 1:00pm CDT: What To Do Now – Grape Bud Swell

REGISTER HERE: z.umn.edu/Grape1

May 13 at 1:00pm CDT: What To Do Now – Early Season Fungicides & Planting Grapevines

REGISTER HERE: z.umn.edu/Grape2

For more information on the topics that will be covered, please click the registration links above.

Speakers include Amaya Atucha (UW-Madison), Matt Clark (UMN), Jed Colquhoun (UW-Madison), Christelle Geudot (UW-Madison), Annie Klodd (UMN), and John Thull (UMN)

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

Orchard management- slow and low

By Terence Bradshaw

Here’s a real quick update. Bud stage in warmest Vermont orchard sites is around half-inch green (HIG). At that point, copper should not be applied unless you know the crop is going to cider, as copper applied at any effective rate for this time of year will russet the fruit finish. Frost is expected, again, the next few nights. At HIG, buds are hardy to around 20°F. I see no immediate issues in that regard. But, frost means that oil and/or captan should not be used in the orchard, at least until late next week. Early season scab fungicides of choice should be mancozeb or scala/vanguard. Sulfur, of course, is the main material for use in organic orchards.

In the Champlain Valley, we’re still closer to green tip for now. That means that copper is still a viable material, but be sure to not apply it after the first two “mouse ear” leaves emerge from the bud. See the bud stage link (above) for a visual. Otherwise, default to those listed above.

Buds are around silver tip or even dormant in upland and inland sites. Hold tight there, although you could get a prophylactic copper on for fire blight, but that won’t help much against scab.

BUT, this doesn’t suggest that anyone needs to spray. Modeled ascospore development is around 1-7%, more in southern areas. Potential for rain is pretty solid today and fairly spotty until midweek. You need rain and extended wetting to cause infection. Here’s my take: orchard at HIG or later should maintain coverage, especially if you have an orchard that takes substantial time to spray. Time it as close to rain as possible; if you were uncovered going into today’s rain, cover as soon as this rain is done with a protectant + Vangard or Scala for some kickback. If you were covered or are in one of the lower risk sites (decent scab control last year, green tip or earlier bud stage), hold off until we get a better idea of the chance for rain later in the week. Of course, use NEWA to keep an eye on scab development in your area.

Insect notes: if tarnished plant bug is a concern in your orchard (less so in pick your own than wholesale orchards), then get traps up soon. We use white sticky traps from Gemplers or Great Lakes IPM. Set three per block, knee-high, on a lower scaffold out in the drive row. Check weekly, giving enough time to apply prebloom insecticide if needed. Trap thresholds are listed in our monitoring guide located here. Print that out and out it on your wall in the shop.

If you’ve had mite or scale problems, think about your options for managing them in the next few weeks. Oil is a great first line of defense, but if you have high populations, especially of scale, you may need to consider adding a stronger material prebloom. Esteem is most recommended for scale, applied around HIG to tight cluster. If mites have been a problem, there are a number of materials available for prebloom use, you’d best check the New England Tree Fruit Management Guide for recommendations.

Be safe out there.

Terry

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

Green tip has arrived in many Vermont orchards

By Terence Bradshaw

Yesterday, April 9, we ‘called’ green tip at the UVM Horticulture Farm, orchards. This signals that buds are beginning to open, and therefore green tissue is present that may be susceptible to apple scab infection. The apple scab ascospore maturity model, which predicts the presence of mature overwintering inoculum that could infect, given appropriate weather conditions, uses ‘McIntosh’ green tip as a biofix to start accumulating degree days. It is best to record your own green tip date, and if you are using NEWA to track infections, use the station that is closest to your farm (or buy your own station, and I can help you to connect it to the NEWA network).

Presently, the orchards in the warmest parts of the state (Bennington and Putney) are predicting 2-5% of ascospores mature; in Addison, Chittenden, and Grand Isle counties, it’s more like 1-2%. Inland and upland sites likely aren’t even at green tip yet, but will likely advance once the warm weather returns. What does this mean? In warmer areas, I would get copper on as soon as you can get in- remember, after the buds reach ½” green tissue, your window for high-rate copper is closed. Wind is looking pretty fierce on Monday (rainy too) and Tuesday, and both of those days look to be in the 50s-60s. So I’d try to get some copper on this weekend. Hold off on oil, as it’s looking like frost conditions Saturday night. For orchards that are closer to the very beginning of green tip and which have less chance of advancing beyond half-inch green on Monday and Tuesday, I would wait until Wednesday or so and apply copper (and oil if you can). For inland and upland sites with no bud break- hold off.

It’s important to recognize that early season infections when <5% of ascospores are mature typically won’t cause much if any scab, especially if your inoculum is low to begin with. Some orchards had terrible scab problems last year, and if you had any noticeable scab, assume that you’re high inoculum and need to take a more conservative strategy this year. But, if you had low scab (as in, none that you know of), and/or you perform orchard sanitation, you can relax a little bit in the early season. You still have time to flail mow leaves and / or apply urea to the orchard floor to reduce scab load for this year. However, copper is important not just as a (relatively weak) scab protectant, but also as a fire blight management tool, so I strongly urge growers to get copper on before the window closes if you’ve had any whiff of that disease in the recent past.

Don’t Forget- The New England Tree Fruit Management Guide is now housed at: http://netreefruit.org.

-Terry

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

COVID-19 business resources, green tip approaching in VT orchards

By Terence Bradshaw

First, UVM Extension Farm Viability Program has posted a page of resources for farm businesses related to emergency loans, grants, and other updates from state agencies: http://blog.uvm.edu/farmvia/?p=1805. Of particular interest to the framing community is the Paycheck Protection Program which provides low-interest, forgiveable loans to small businesses to cover payroll, mortgage interest, rent, and utilities. The direct link to that program is: https://www.sba.gov/funding-programs/loans/coronavirus-relief-options/paycheck-protection-program-ppp.

In walking the orchards at the UVM Hort Farm yesterday, I saw a lot of swollen, delayed-dormant buds, but only none yet at silver tip. Given the warm weather expected next week, I would expect to see at least some cultivars reach green tip in the next seven days. If you have green tissue on your farm already, please send me a note to let me know. Thus begins the disease management season.

If you’re still pruning, you should wrap up what you can and get your brush pushed to make room for sprayer access. I am a believer in using copper at green tip for disease management. The timing of this spray is very important- too soon (no green tissue showing) and you risk ‘wasting’ some of the effectiveness of the material against apple scab when susceptible tissue isn’t present. Too late (beyond ½” green tip) and you risk fruit russeting, which can be quite severe. Given that, it’s better to err a bit on the early side, but you should have green tissue showing in the orchard before applying. Copper applied at green tip will give about seven days’ protection against apple scab.

Copper’s primary benefit is in reducing overwintering populations of fire blight bacteria. Even though we saqw minimal amounts of this disease last year, fire blight has become a regular disease to manage in Vermont, and a multi-pronged approach will be needed to keep it at bay. Copper should be applied to all trees in the orchard, not just susceptible varieties, and in as dilute a spray as possible. The specific copper material is less critical than the amount of metallic copper that is applied in the spray, and copper sulfate, copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride sulfate products all will be effective when used at label rates. A good primer on spring copper applications to pome fruit by Dr. David Rosenberger can be found in the March 28, 2011 issue of Scaffolds. Addition of one quart oil per 100 gallons can help improve penetration into bark crevasses where fire blight may reside. However, this could be a good time to apply a full oil spray to manage overwintering mites, and a 2% solution is recommended at this timing. Oil and copper products are compatible for tank mixing at this time of the year, but likelihood of phytotoxicity increases as more green tissue emerges. One benefit of applying oil in your first spray is that it allows more time for it to degrade or wash off before incompatible fungicides such as Captan and sulfur may be used as primary scab season ramps up. Avoid the oil if you’re within a few days (before or after the spray) of a frost to reduce chances of damage to tree tissues.

Now that the ground is clear and firming up, it also would be a good idea to perform spring orchard sanitation to reduce overwintering scab inoculum. Leaf shredding with a flail mower is an effective practice that also may be used to reduce small pruning wood to mulch, but the mower must be kept low in order to lift and grind leaves that harbor overwintering inoculum. Alternatively, there is still time to apply urea (40 lbs/100 gal water/acre) to leaf litter which aids in decomposition and breakdown of inoculum. Leaves should be wetted thoroughly and the majority of material directed into the tree row.

Good luck with the beginning of the season and please reach out if you need anything.

-Terry

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

Pre bud break vineyard management; COVID-19 farm business resources

By Terence Bradshaw

First, UVM Extension Farm Viability Program has posted a page of resources for farm businesses related to emergency loans, grants, and other updates from state agencies: http://blog.uvm.edu/farmvia/?p=1805. Of particular interest to the framing community is the Paycheck Protection Program which provides low-interest, forgiveable loans to small businesses to cover payroll, mortgage interest, rent, and utilities. The direct link to that program is: https://www.sba.gov/funding-programs/loans/coronavirus-relief-options/paycheck-protection-program-ppp.

In the vineyard, things are holding tight now but reports from the Hudson Valley suggest an early bud break. Dr. Jim Myers continues to run his bud hardiness model, which for our region, shows vines beginning to deacclimate about 7-10 days earlier than normal. Does that mean budbreak will be 7-10 days early? Maybe, but not guaranteed. But this is a suggestion that we should get things in order for the season to begin before we know it. For those who follow this list, the rest of this message is an updated copy from this time last year- the early season details are pretty much the same year-to-year:

After a long winter, spring is here and bud break is approaching. Plan on wrapping up pruning in the coming weeks and removing brush from the rive alleys to the burn pile (and burn it, too, to reduce overwintering insects and disease inoculum). This is a good time to review your previous season’s spray records and to identify any gaps that may have led to disease issues. We have updated two disease management documents in 2017 for Vermont and area grape growers: a table of relative disease susceptibility of cold-climate cultivars and an initial IPM strategy for cold climate winegrapes. More information on general viticulture and other small fruit production can be found in the 2019 New England Small Fruit Management Guide , and the 2020 New York and Pennsylvania Pest Management Guidelines for Grapes are now available and should be used in combination with specific pesticide labels to select pesticide materials for use in your IPM program.

One pesticide spray that is often considered by growers is a late dormant application of lime sulfur (LS) which aids in inoculum reduction against many diseases, especially phomopsis and anthracnose. Growers who have had more than a passing amount of either of those diseases, especially organic growers with more limited choice of materials during the growing season may consider applying this practice, but I make that recommendation with several caveats. While LS is an organically-approved pesticide, it is one of the most acutely toxic materials I have ever used, and demands special considerations for its use. It is also a restricted-used spray material, so unlicensed applicators may not purchase or apply it. LS (active ingredient calcium polysulfide) is very caustic; spray mixtures tend to have pH around 10-11, and that characteristic is what gives it its sanitizing effect as a biocide. Contact with skin or especially eyes must be avoided, and it is pretty noxious even when smelled through a respirator. This material demands respect. While those effects will dissipate in the field after sufficient washoff and degradation by rain and other elements, I would only plan on applying after pruning is finished so not to muck around in it after application. In fact, very thorough pruning out of all dead and diseased wood is an important cultural disease control practice, and if you have a lot of such wood left in the vineyard, spraying your way around pruning it out won’t help.

LS is typically labeled for application at "15-20 gallons per acre in sufficient water for coverage" (Miller Liquid Lime Sulfur). That is a very high amount of LS, and would be difficult to apply and very costly when applied to large acreages. The key is to fully soak all woody tissues in the vineyard. This may mean aiming all nozzles at the cordons, but that would leave the trunks uncovered. Alternatively, the sprayer could be operated to cover the whole zone from the fruiting wire down, which would waste a tremendous amount of spray. The best application may come from a careful handgun application, which will take a long time and should be done with full protective gear including heavy nitrile gloves, full face shield and respirator, and Tyvek or other chemical-resistant, disposable coveralls. It is hard to say how much you would apply per acre in a directed spray, since that would be much more efficient with less wasted spray than an airblast application. My suggestion would be to apply a 10% solution (1 gallon LS to 9 gallons water) by handgun to cordons and trunks in a very thorough soaking spray. If you need to use an airblast to cover more ground, I would concentrate my nozzles toward the cordons but leave one or two directed toward the trunks, that will waste spray between vines but will allow you to cover ground much quicker. Because of the reduction in efficiency, I would calibrate to apply ten gallons of LS per acre in at least fifty gallons of water.

Remember, this stuff is caustic, stinky, and degrades just about everything it touches. It’s also quite phytotoxic- application at these rates to vines after bud break will cause leaf damage if not outright defoliation. I have used a lot of LS during the growing season in organic apple production, and don’t recommend it there unless absolutely necessary. I do not have experience using it in-season (post-bud break) on grapes, so this recommended spray must be applied during the window between pruning and bud break. The spray, if left on tractors and in sprayer plumbing, will corrode hoses, gaskets, and even stainless steel. It must be thoroughly rinsed from sprayer systems and the rinsate applied back out in the vineyard, not dumped on the ground. Some growers have applied a film of vegetable oil via backpack prayer to tractors and sprayers before an LS application to prevent it from soaking into and corroding steel and other materials on equipment. It’s that bad, and I could show you sprayer hitches, mix screens, and ceramic nozzles that have been degraded by it.

With all that said, LS is extremely effective as a preventative practice to reduce disease inoculum, and I still recommend its use in vineyards where anthracnose and/or phomopsis have gotten a bit out of control. Just be careful out there and treat it with the same (and a little more) respect that you should retreat any pesticide.”

Good luck with your vineyard activities in the coming weeks, and let’s all hope for a ‘normal’, gradual spring warm-up.

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

Followup information from Feb 13 annual Apple growers’ meeting

By Terence Bradshaw

I’ve been taking notes during today’s VTFGA / UVM Apple Program annual meeting. This is useful even if you didn’t make the meeting on Feb 13. Here goes:

1. Slides from the talks will be available at: http://www.uvm.edu/~fruit/?Page=treefruit/tf_meetings.html&SM=tf_submenu.html
They should be up there shortly.

2. Please consider taking our pretty short survey on cider apple production. Even if you don’t grow cider apples, knowing that is helpful to develop baseline data for the New England Cider Apple Project.

3. The Vermont Agriculture Food System Plan: 2020 is available at: https://agriculture.vermont.gov/document/vermont-agriculture-and-food-system-plan-2020
Vermont Secretary of Agriculture Anson Tebbetts discusses the report here: https://agriculture.vermont.gov/agency-agriculture-food-markets-news/secretary-tebbetts-op-ed-setting-table-vermont-what-would-you
This report was generated by agriculture professional and stakeholders and vetted by industry participants. So, the apple chapter was written by me and coauthored by the Vermont Tree Fruit Growers Association board of directors.

4. Dr. Anna Wallingford from UNH referenced the Xerces society in her talk on Integrated Pest and Pollinator Management. She also referenced A Pesticide Decision-making Guide to Protect Pollinators in Tree Fruit Orchards.

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

Thoughts on spring approaching in Vermont orchards

By Terence Bradshaw

In contrast to the rest of the population, those of us in the fruit growing community hate warm March weather, and this year looks like another which will potentially give us early bud break, at least in the warmer parts of the state in Bennington county and the Connecticut Valley. Reports out of the Hudson Valley and Massachusetts suggest that they may are seeing silver tip on apples, and pear psylla have already started moving. I wouldn’t translate that to suggest that we will see green tip in the immediate future, but it’s coming. This gives growers time to get caught up and ready for spray season, so don’t be complacent.

Given the generally heavy crop in Vermont orchards in 2019, fruit bud density is expected to be relatively low this year. That means that pruning can be a little lighter to compensate for fewer fruit buds. That doesn’t give license to ignore your end of season pruning, but suggests that trees may be breezed through a little quicker if you have wrap up pruning to do. The winter has been generally good for outdoor work, so most orchards should be easily caught-up. My take home: get finished up in the next two weeks, then get ready for spraying season. After the soil dries a bit (and hoping that this early mud season is truly early and not just extended), push your pruning brush or flail mow in-place for high density plantings with smaller pruning wood. Calibrate your sprayer. As soon as you can get into the orchard, an application of urea to the leaf litter (44 lbs feed-grade urea in 100 gallons water per acre directed at the ground, especially under trees) may be warranted to reduce overwintering apple scab inoculum, too. That is not an organic-acceptable practice, so if you are certified, consider applying granular lime or compost tea instead if you wish to improve leaf litter decomposition.

Get your early season spray materials ordered and on-hand for when the season starts. No really, calibrate your sprayer. Be ready to properly oil the orchard if you have had any issues with mite flareups or San Jose scale, the latter of which I have seen not only in orchards but also on fruit in grocery stores. Remember that oil should go on at full dilute or no more than 2x concentration to be most effective; I’ll discuss that further in a future message. So when you calibrate your sprayer, be sure to reserve a setting for high-volume applications, either by switching to higher-output nozzles, reducing travel speed, or both.

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

Apple producers’ meeting is on for tomorrow, Thursday Feb 13 in Middlebury

By Terence Bradshaw

The weather for overnight tonight and into tomorrow is a little dicey, with 3-5 inches of snow, total, expected through tomorrow afternoon. Given the logistics of rescheduling, we’re going to keep the meeting date for tomorrow’s UVM Apple Program / VT Tree Fruit Growers Association 124th Annual Meeting.

American Legion Hall, 49 Wilson Rd, Middlebury, VT 05753

8:30-4:00 PM

www.uvm.edu/~fruit/treefruit/tf_meetings/VTFGA_124_2020agenda_registration.pdf

Thank you,

Terry

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.

Electronic Registration is Open- February 13 VTFGA & UVM Apple Program Annual growers’ meeting

By Terence Bradshaw

Notice: Early bird (discounted) registration ends February 4.

Electronic registration is now open at: https://my.cheddarup.com/c/vt-tree-fruit-growers-association-annual-dues

The agenda and registration for the 124th annual Vermont Tree Fruit Growers Association and UVBM Apple Program growers’ meeting is now available. Registration and agenda are at: http://go.uvm.edu/2020applemtg.

I am personally excited by the quality and breadth of information that will be presented at this meeting. For IPM topics, we’ll have UNH Entomologist Dr. Anna Wallingford and UMASS Extension specialist Elizabeth Garofalo who will each discuss critical pest management and pollination issues. Russell Powell from New England Apple Association will lead us in a soul-searching discussion of the future of apple cultivars in the region. And Rose Wilson will lead a group discussion on future direction of the Vermont Tree Fruit Growers Association and will provide critical insight on marketing your crop. This meeting will be of great use to all tree fruit growers and managers, large, small, wholesale, retail, conventional, and even unconventional.

The program has been approved by VT Agency of Agriculture for four pesticide reeducation credits.

Best,

Terry

Where trade names or commercial products are used for identification,

no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is implied.

Always read the label before using any pesticide.

The label is the legal document for the product use.

Disregard any information in this message if it is in conflict with the

label.

The UVM Tree Fruit and Viticulture Program is supported by the

University of Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station, a USDA NIFA E-IPM

Grant, and USDA Risk Management Agency Funds.