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UVM Extension AgEngineering Blog

Upcoming Produce Safety Training (November 6-7, 2017)

Posted: October 30th, 2017 by Andy

The Vermont Agency of Agriculture and UVM Extension are co-sponsoring a VT-Style Produce Safety Alliance (PSA) Grower Training on Tue-Wed, November 7 & 8, 2017 (8:30am – 5:00pm) at the VYCC Monitor Barn in Richmond, VT. This is the official required training for FSMA covered farms (Click here to determine whether your farm may be covered or exempt).


The $30 heavily subsidized training fee includes the massive training manual, multiple meals, ample coffee, and the Association of Food and Drug Official (AFDO) certificate (a $130 value—not including space rental or instructor fees!). The AFDO training certificate satisfies FSMA Produce Safety Rule training requirement.

EVERYONE is invited: Regardless of scale, annual sales, or market outlets, all produce growers can benefit from learning about integrating practical produce safety practices on a working produce operation. Technical assistance providers, educators, and regulators are also invited and will benefit from this training. Whether you are a covered farm fully subject to Produce Safety Rule (PSR) regulations, or an exempt farm required to keep certain records related to your exemption, all aspects rule compliance will also be covered during this training.

The Training Schedule at a glance:
Day One (November 7, 8:30am–5:00pm) will provide an introduction to the FSMA Produce Safety Rule, employee health, hygiene and training requirements, and information about management of soil amendments as well as domesticated animals and wildlife. Includes on-farm exploration to apply concepts in the field.
Day Two (November 8, 8:30am–5:00pm) will cover agricultural water, postharvest handling and sanitation, and writing produce safety plans. Includes on-farm exploration to apply post-harvest concepts.

View more details and registration visit:  PSA Training Registration via Regonline

Building a Hoop House in One Day!

Posted: October 26th, 2017 by Andy

A fun day of learning during a hoop house install during one single day by Nifty Hoops at Bread & Butter Farm in Shelburne VT.

See photos from the day on our flickr page here: https://flic.kr/s/aHsm4yUQUL

Like Nifty Hoops on facebook! https://www.facebook.com/NiftyHoops/

Visit Nifty Hoops website: http://niftyhoops.com/

Nifty Hoops has their own YouTube Channel! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCj0g…

Check Out Bread & Butter Farm! https://www.facebook.com/breadandbutt… http://www.breadandbutterfarm.com/

 

 

Local Ingredients for Local Brewers

Posted: October 3rd, 2017 by Andy

The University of Vermont Extension’s Northwest Crops & Soils Team along with Andrew Peterson of Peterson Quality Malt, on August 22, 2017 took a visit to the nearby barley fields at the Van De Weert Farm in Ferrisburgh and discussed barley harvesting and processing for malt production.We also toured the facility to learn about malting small grains and grain quality requirements necessary for producing high-quality malt at Peterson Quality Malt in Monkton, VT.

See the NW Crops & Soils Team on Facebook and their web page https://www.facebook.com/uvmcropsoil/

http://www.uvm.edu/extension/cropsoil/

Check out Peterson Quality Malt on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/PetersonQual…

See pictures from the field day:  https://www.flickr.com/gp/uvmextageng/8FB1Ef

 

Spring Cleaning – Farm Cooler Checklist

Posted: April 21st, 2017 by Chris Callahan

Whether your winter storage rooms are getting bare or you are making the transition from sweet corn to potatoes, what better time to give your cooler a once over than right now? Download the Farm Cooler Checklist to help guide your walk-through.

Highlights include:

  • Cleaning, sanitizing and inspection of surfaces
  • Checking the envelope
  • Inspecting refrigeration equipment inside and out
  • Checking over a CoolBotTM
  • Checking thermostats
  • Confirming drainage
  • Reviewing and possibly upgrading lighting
  • Considering energy efficiency upgrades

Improved Ventilation for High Tunnels

Posted: March 24th, 2017 by Chris Callahan

I have received many inquiries about how to improve ventilation of high tunnels from growers with tunnels that have only roll-up sides. The issues they are facing tend to be either high temp, high humidity or both, leading to plant stress or disease. These situations tend to be in less than ideal sites for ventilation and/or temperature control. For example, crowded lots with trees or other significant wind breaks close to the tunnel, high southern exposure (which can be good of course), and/or simply calm sites that provide little ventilation.

Keenan Meier Shutters with flanged seal highlighted.

Roll-up sides alone tend to work for tunnels on sites with generally good air flow. Diffusion between inside and outside does happen, of course, but is slow and unlikely to achieve good ventilation along the center of the tunnel, especially with dense vegetation later in plant maturity. But, I think of a tunnel in this instance a bit like a wood stove. Without a chimney-effect natural draft, you’re really only getting ventilation from the sides and only then if there is a decent breeze. Warmer air and, therefore, humidity will tend to collect in the canopy and peak.

Passive wax cylinder louver actuator. [Photo Credit: http://www.littlegreenhouse.com/accessory/vent2.shtml]

This probably is OK in many sites for most crops. But not always. In many cases gable vents will improve ventilation by acting as outlets for warm humid air in warmer seasons and by allowing for low volume ventilation in colder weather. I recommend a simple 24″x24″ gable vent (for a 30’x96′ tunnel) on each end wall, with a thermostatic wax cylinder actuator like the ones made by J. Orbesen Teknik APS available from LittleGreenhouse.com., FarmTek, and Agricultural Solutions among others  The actuators require no electricity, are relatively inexpensive and are passively controlled by the wax cylinder based on temperature.

At the very least, when building end-walls consider framing in a rough opening to accept a 24″x24″ in the end wall so that a future install is easier. If you want to skip the expense of a louvered, wax cylinder system, you can use a manually-controlled sheet of plywood to open and close the vent. If you go with a louvered vent, seek one that has a flanged seal it closes against. Keenan Meier, and Munters-Euroemme has such flanged, louvered dampers.

Munters Euroemme fan with flanged seal being pointed out.

These have zero daylight when closed which results in a solid seal. Most others on the market that I have seen have no such closure seal.

Remember that HAF fans work to mix the space (circulate the air) but don’t significantly improve ventilation. HAF combined with roll up sides can do the trick, but the site is the key. There needs to be a steady cross breeze for any significant air exchange to occur.

Rats (and other rodents)

Posted: October 14th, 2016 by Chris Callahan

Download the PDF version of this page here!

When considering storage rooms, wash and pack sheds with growers there is one topic that is sure to strike a nerve: RODENTS.

This document is intended to provide summary information about measures you can take to reduce crop losses from these pests.  It is the result of a review of current literature on the topic and feedback from the Listserv of the Vermont Vegetable and Berry Grower’s Association (VVBGA). This document includes both active measures (traps, rodenticides, FSMA compliant cats and ball pythons, etc.) and passive measures (sealing, doors, packing, hardware cloth, novel construction, accepting the loss, selling everything early). But why are these creatures so challenging?  Here’s some background1:

House Mice Can

  • Enter openings larger than 1/4 inch
  • Jump as high as 18 inches
  • Travel considerable distances crawling upside-down along wire
  • Survive and reproduce at a temperature of 24°F if adequate food and nesting material are available.

Rats Can

  • Crawl through or under any opening higher or wider than 1/2 inch
  • Climb the outside or inside of vertical pipes and conduits up to 3 inches in diameter
  • Jump from a flat surface up to 36 inches vertically and as far as 48 inches horizontally
  • Drop 50 feet without being seriously injured
  • Burrow straight down into the ground for at least 36”
  • Swim as far as 1/2mi in open water, dive through water traps in plumbing, and travel in sewer lines against a substantial water current.

As one grower put it, “To deal with rats, you’ve got to think link a rat!”

Bottom Line

Cleanliness and Sanitation – Keep food sources well contained and sealed up, reduce “harborage” (places they can hide and live including weeds around the edge of a building), minimize available standing water. In short, make it unappealing and uncomfortable for them.

Rodent Deterrent Construction – Keep them out of the building. [References 1-3 provide very detailed guidance and novel, passive and relatively inexpensive construction ideas] Some examples from the references include keeping all wood products like cardboard, roots, or lumber off the ground and away from the building. Installing proper drainage with sand, stone and proper slope away from your building helps reduce moisture which can carry other pests like beetles and termites. Think about your exterior landscaping and its ability to trap moisture against the building. Keeping grass and weeds trimmed won’t leave a place for rodents to hide and travel. Think about all possible points of entry, sills, doors, windows, roofs. Mice can sneak into small holes and cracks so do your best to seal up all possible points of entry.

Population Reduction — Bait, trap, kill.

Using snap traps, sticky pads, poisonous bait are all the most effective ways of dealing with a rodent problem [References 5-7].

Responses from the VVBGA LISTSERV 

The following are responses from Vermont growers. These are some of their challenges and solutions related to rodents on their farms.

  • I have had over 20% of my sweet potatoes damage by voles.  Usually the largest sweet potatoes are the ones half eaten.  The next year I put five “yard windmills” in the sweet potato bed, 100 ft. long, along with a half stick of gum under the black plastic by each plant – cheap gum from the discount food store.  Both were done after I removed the row covers and before the vines spread. That reduced the damage to less than 5%. Very anecdotal and empirical data but worth exploring.  Supposedly the voles do not like vibration of the windmill and eating the gum gives them a bellyache, if fatal I do not know.  Bigger windmills, four inches in diameter and larger, with metal post seem to work better.  How much gum is actually needed I do not know. A SARE  grant in your future.
  • Not the cheapest retrofit, but have had the best luck with making all walls tin or concrete, and having rat traps permanently set at every overhead door jamb, since the seal is not 100%.  Ventilate with in-wall intake and exhaust fans instead of opening doors.
  • I recently tried the tin cats and was happy. Baited them by putting small amount of oats in the trap and tilting it so the grain slid to the end where the screen was. After the mice got a few seed through the screen, they were drawn into the trap to get the remainder. Two mice in the same trap on the first night. The downside is that you have to clean out all the grain each time so it doesn’t hamper the trap mechanism. Have used Contract waxy block in bait stations for at least 4 years. Switching to a different bait because I think they are starting to get a resistance.
  • I’ve been using that old root cellar all winter for 3 years now without any rodent problems. The process of having someone cement hardware cloth over every crack and crevice was time-consuming but really seems to have worked. I think I finally got rid of the rats in my toolshed through a combination of trapping and disturbing their nesting spots. I’m curious about rodent solutions that apply to the field and high tunnel. I’ve tried to keep cats but the fishers get them.
  • I have not had a single animal in the new barn that I built with the 12” concrete knee wall. I partly contribute the success to the fact that I do not set the bins on the ground. They are filled on the trailer and go directly from the trailer to the barn. This reduces the chance that a hitchhiker will take a ride into the barn.

  • We are a very small pumpkin farm and don’t have the storage needs for food, but I use lots of snap traps and dump those little, dead vermin bodies while wearing a happy smile!
  • We have only killed rats by accidentally moving a pallet onto one. Can’t bait them. They are very intelligent.
  • “We have a great barn cat and a Jack Russell terrier for our farm.”
  • Mice – kernel of corn wedged into mousetrap trigger covered in peanut butter. Rats – same as above but do not the set the trap for several nights and remove all other food sources (in chicken hutch empty all food containers) then set the trap.  Putting a milk crate over the trap prevents chickens, cats, dogs from getting caught.  Also works with chipmunks, and occasionally with red squirrels. Voles – hard to trap, run them down and stomp.

REFERENCES

  1. Baker R., Bodman G. and Timm, R. 1994. Rodent-Proof Construction and Exclusion Methods. The Handbook: Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. Paper 27.  http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=icwdmhandbook
  2. Hoddenbach, G., Johnson, J., Disalvo, C. 1997. Rodent Exclusion Techniques. A Training Guide for National Park Service Employees. National Park Service. http://www.ehs.ucsb.edu/files/docs/e
    h/ihrodentexclusion.pdf
  3. Simmons, S. 2005. Pest Prevention Construction Guidelines and Practices. CASBO Journal. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/pestmgt/pubs/casbo_article.pdf
  4. UMass Extension. 2008. Rodent Control on Farms. Fact Sheet – https://ag.umass.edu/sites/ag.umass.edu/files/fact-sheets/pdf/RodentControl08-44.pdf
  5. University of Maryland Extension. 2014. Rodent Control on Small Poultry Farms. Fact Sheet. https://extension.umd.edu/sites/default/files/_docs/publications/FS-
  6. 985%20Rodent%20control%20on%20small%20poultry%20farms.pdf
  7. Pierce, R. 1982. Bait Stations for Controlling Rats and Mice. Fact Sheet G-9444. University of Missouri Extension. http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9444
  8. Vantassel, S. M., Hygnstrom S. E. and Ferraro, D. M. 2012. Bait Stations for Controlling Rats and Mice. Fact Sheet G1646. https://wildlife.unl.edu/pdfs/bait-stations-controlling-rats-mice.pdf.

Pumps and Pipes

Posted: May 14th, 2016 by Chris Callahan

A Taco 007

A Taco 007, shaken not stirred.

“Will the 007 be enough?”  is a common question in early spring as greenhouses around the region fire up and we do our best to keep seed trays and their cargo warm on the still-cool nights.  My mind instantly goes to “which movie?” And then I crash back to earth and realize this is a question about pumps and I am not Q. Read the rest of this entry »

Thermostats for Agriculture

Posted: May 3rd, 2016 by Chris Callahan

I am often asked by growers and processors to recommend a thermostat for greenhouse, cooler, or postharvest process use.  There are many to choose from and their specifications can be confusing. It is important to remember just what a thermostat does. It is essentially no different from the light switch on the wall with one very significant exception.  Instead of depending on a person to switch it from ON to OFF, we use a temperature measurement.  The accuracy of both the temperature setpoint (what you set) and the actual temperature (what the actual condition is) can be critical for production quality and energy efficiency. Read the rest of this entry »

Vermont Farmers Food Center Heats with Biomass

Posted: May 1st, 2016 by Chris Callahan

Rob Steingress (VFFC), Bill Kretzer (12 Gauge Electric) and Greg Cox (VFFC) perform final inspections before the initial firing of the boiler.

Rob Steingress (VFFC), Bill Kretzer (12 Gauge Electric) and Greg Cox (VFFC) perform final inspections before the initial firing of the boiler.

UVM Extension and others supported the recent installation of a 341,200 BTU/hr (output) multi-fuel biomass boiler at the Vermont Farmers Food Center (VFFC) in Rutland, VT.  The boiler heats the Farmer’s Hall building with the capability to use several alternative fuels to displace propane. The boiler was fueled primarily on wood pellets but was also able to feed and burn grass biomass pucks. This demonstration project carried a cost premium when compared to a typical propane heater installation.  That premium is paid back over time due to recurring fuel cost savings. A simple payback period of 2.2 to 8.0 years is feasible against a cost premium of $51,255 for the boiler depending on the fuel used and the amount of use. For more details about the project and the economic performance please see the report.

Read the rest of this entry »

Grass and “Ag Biomass” Competitive with Wood Chips

Posted: May 1st, 2016 by Chris Callahan

Chris Davis (Meach Cove Trust) prepares the boiler and combustion testing equipment for a trial run of the new fuel.

Chris Davis (Meach Cove Trust) prepares the boiler and combustion testing equipment for a trial run of the new fuel.

Recent testing at the Meach Cove Trust has demonstrated strong economic and technical feasibility of grass-based biomass combustion fuels.  The use of solid, densified, cellulosic biomass fuels has been well demonstrated with wood pellets in residential and light commercial systems and wood chips in larger, often centralized systems.  The Grass Energy Partnership of the Vermont Bioenergy Initiative has been exploring an alternative form of fuel; grasses densified in a specially developed processor to take the form of 1.5”-2.0” round cylindrical pucks.  Grass fuels may be produced on otherwise marginal agricultural land, sometimes in perennial production and even in buffer strips offering environmental benefit.  Additionally, fuel can be made by densifying agricultural residue or biomass harvested from idle pasture or fields.  We have referred to this fuel as “Ag Biomass”. The testing summarized in this report has demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of such fuels.

Read the rest of this entry »

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