The exercise above combines one-octave major scales using a ‘seven up and down’ pattern with a progression that could be called the two-bar ii-V-I or ‘short’ ii-V-I. Briefly, a major ii-V-I progression is a series of three seventh chords built off the second, fifth and first steps of a given major scale. Building seventh chords on these roots results in a succession of three qualities: a minor seventh chord, followed by a dominant seventh chord, followed by a major seventh chord. The exercise above shows a way of voicing these three chords in close harmony by using a rootless inversion of the middle chord of the progression (the V7). The exercise above uses only three moves to voice ii-V-I progressions descending by whole steps:
1. The ‘Seven Drop’ (named by one of my students) – The seventh of the minor 7th or ii chord moves down a half step to form the V7 chord -This can be seen in the move from Bm7 to E7 in the first bar of the exercise.
2. The ‘Scale Step Move’ – the bottom two notes of the dominant 7th or V7 chord move down a scale step in the key of the current ii-V-I. This can be seen in the move from E7 to Amaj7 between bar 1 and bar 2 of the exercise. This can also be described as ‘middle note down a half step, bottom note down a whole step’ but this is ultimately more complicated than understanding the progression in the context of its ‘parent major scale’.
3. The ‘Three-Seven’ drop – The top two notes of the major 7th or I chord move down a half step to form the ii chord in the next ii-V-I progression.
The ii-V-I progression can establish the tonic key of a tune or the arrival of a new key, or the end of a phrase or the entire tune. A ‘ii’ chord, as jazz players define it, does not necessarily have to be built of the second step of a tune’s major scale; in fact, any place in a chord progression where there is a minor 7th chord followed a dominant 7th chord with the roots moving up a perfect fourth is commonly referred to by jazz players as a ‘ii-V’.
A few of the many jazz tunes that are based on the two-bar ii-V-I progression and the one-bar ii-V progression include Charlie Parker’s ‘My Little Suede Shoes’ (recorded fairly recently by the fantastic Jon Batiste and Stay Human), Bud Powell’s ‘Strictly Confidential’ (which is used as a ‘shout chorus’ by Diana Krall in her version of another two-bar ii-V-I tune, ‘Let’s Fall In Love’ from Live In Paris), Clifford Brown’s ‘Joy Spring’ and Bill Evans’ ‘Peri’s Scope’. (The last two tunes can be found in The Real Book Volume One, Sixth Edition, published by Hal Leonard.)
In Vermont, there is an organization called The 251 Club whose members aspire to visit all 251 towns in the state. Some of the members who have actually visited all 251 towns are listed on the club’s website. The Club’s website has a wonderful mission statement, some of which I think also applies to the jazz player’s lifelong pursuit of building a repertoire of tunes: ‘Travel at your own pace, in a season or in a lifetime, by…whatever conveyance suits your style…The expectation is that you will be inventive and adventurous in following the road less traveled to Vermont’s little known corners, as well as its more popular destinations.’ Jazz players who have tunes to learn for imminent gigs, concerts and exams do not always get to travel at their own pace. I find, however, that outside the short-term schedule of each individual performance I give, there is a slower process through which I’ve found the tunes that stay in my memory and under my fingers. I have chosen some of these tunes, but others have chosen me or have been chosen for me. I play the music of Bud Powell, for example, because I have always been drawn to it, but I now also know a number of Wayne Shorter tunes by heart because of how many times Ray Vega called them on gigs I played with him. My personal repertoire has been expanded in similar ways by working with many other collaborators. While the ability to learn a tune list on a prescribed timeline is an important skill for all musicians, the lifelong process of finding and curating a personal tune list has its own pace, which you might also call ‘your own pace’. I also like the 251 Club’s emphasis on being ‘inventive and adventurous’, and visiting both ‘popular destination and little-known corners’, all important reminders for the jazz tune hunter (or perhaps ‘tunehound’.)
While the membership fees are reasonably priced, an implied requirement for being a member of the club is that one has access to a mode of transportation. Maybe there should be an informal musical organization called ‘The ii-V-I Club’, made up of aspiring and practicing jazz players who seek to learn the ii-V-I progression in all keys or expand their knowledge of it, and to learn tunes that use this important musical building block. If there were such a group, the voicings and scales above are one ‘vehicle’ that can take you through many tunes that are based on the ii-V-I progression – maybe not two hundred and fifty one tunes, but quite a few. Besides the list of tunes earlier in this post, more ii-V-I tunes can be found in the next post in this series, Take Three At A Time, which shows how to assemble a list of six tunes from The Real Book Volume One that take you through ii-V-Is in all keys. My posts Give It Up for The Root (position pattern)s! and Midnight Donna and Reets in Paris also show a number of one-bar ii-V and two-bar ii-V-I melodic patterns from bop tunes that are based on that progression. I wish you a happy, lifelong adventure through the byways of the jazz repertoire, full of lots listening and reading, and encourage you to prepare for the journey by learning the ii-V-I progression in all keys.