History Notes 2010

Paleo and Archaic Age 12,000-9,000 years ago
Cahokia (pronounced /kəˈhoʊki.ə/) Mounds State Historic Site is the area of an ancient indigenous city (ca. 600–1400 CE) near Collinsville,Illinois. In the American Bottom floodplain, it is across the Mississippi Riverfrom St. Louis, Missouri. The 2,200-acre (8.9 km2) site included 120 man-made earthwork mounds over an area of six square miles, although only 80 survive.[1] Cahokia Mounds is the largest archaeological site related to theMississippian culture, which developed advanced societies in central and eastern North America beginning more than five centuries before the arrival of Europeans.[2]

The Algonquian languages (also Algonkian; pronounced /ælˈɡɒŋkwiən/ or /ælˈɡɒŋkiən/)[1] are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family. The name of the Algonquian language family is distinguished from the orthographically similar Algonquin dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is a member of the Algonquian language family. The term “Algonquin” derives from the Maliseet word elakómkwik (pronounced[ɛlæˈɡomoɡwik]), “they are our relatives/allies”.[2][3] Most Algonquian languages are extremely endangered today, with few native speakers. A number of the languages have already become extinct.

Speakers of Algonquian languages stretch from the east coast of North America all the way to the west coast. The Yurock and Wiyot being the western-most nation to have language resembling other Algic languages. The proto-language from which all of the languages of the family descend, Proto-Algonquian, was spoken at least 3,000 years ago. There is no scholarly consensus as to the territory where this language was spoken.

The Iroquois (pronounced /ˈɪrəkwɔɪ/), also known as the Haudenosauneeor the “People of the Longhouse“,[1] are an association of several tribes ofindigenous people of North America. After the Iroquoian-speaking peoples coalesced as distinct tribes, based mostly in present-day upstate New York, in the 16th century or earlier they came together in an association known today as the Iroquois League, or the “League of Peace and Power”. The original Iroquois League was often known as the Five Nations, as it was composed of theMohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca nations. After the Tuscaroranation joined the League in 1722, the Iroquois became known as the Six Nations. The League is embodied in the Grand Council, an assembly of fifty hereditarysachems.[2]
Matrilineal and Matrifocal- Following the mother and her kin through a clan like system to assert power or control.
Sky Woman/Corn Maiden Iroquois creator being.
Manitou is a term used to designate the spirits among many Algonquian groups. It refers to the concept of one aspect of the interconnection and balance of nature/life, similar to the East Asian concept of qi;[citation needed] in simpler terms it can refer to a spirit. This spirit is seen as a (contactable) person as well as a concept. Everything has its own manitou—every plant, every stone, even machines.
Mourning Wars- Raids Iroquois went on to capture people to symbolically replace their dead.
Res Nullium
Res nullius (lit: nobody’s property) is a Latin term derived from Roman law whereby res (an object in the legal sense, anything that can be owned, even a slave, but not a subject in law such as a citizen) is not yet the object of rights of any specific subject. Such items are considered ownerless property and are usually free to be owned.
Examples of res nullius in the socio-economic sphere are wild animals or abandoned property. Finding can also be a means of occupation (i.e. vesting ownership), since a thing completely lost or abandoned is res nullius, and therefore belonged to the first taker. Specific legislation may be made, e.g. for beachcombing.

“Speaking Apes”
All Fool’s Day/Charivari- Folk custom in which the lords dressed as peasants and the peasants pretended to be lords.
Inns of Court/Common Law- Universities and the law that establishes res nullius as a response to increasing royal power until the enclosurement act at the close of an extended period of several hundred years of inflation.
Vagrancy Acts- Series of British laws seeking to control the swelling ranks of young men who had become vagrants with the institution of the enclosurement act. Often include harsh punishments such as whipping, death, or slavery
“Masterless Men” -Indentured servitude
Scottish migration to Ulster- Protestant attempt to consolidate power in Northern Ireland, 100000 Protestant Scots moved to Catholic N. Ireland under King James
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Henry VIII (1509-47)
Vacuum Domicilium – Concept that no one was in America, therefore the Colonists could take control of the land with no problems. Winthrop articulates this, also drawing distinction between natural and civil rights to land.

Roanoke colony, 1587
The first English Colony of Roanoke, originally consisting of 100 householders, was founded in 1585, 22 years before Jamestown and 37 years before the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts, under the ultimate authority of Sir Walter Raleigh. In 1584 Raleigh had been granted a patent by Queen Elizabeth I to colonize America.
Joint-stock companies
Arawaks, from 8 million to 200
Spain’s incredibly inhumane and oppressive policies of enslavement, slaughter and separation of families, combined with starvation and overwork and so increased susceptibility to smallpox, resulted in Taino society’s drastic decline within a few decades after contact.[8] Attacks by Carib tribes and unrelenting harsh treatment by the Europeans accelerated the process. Although Taino society was destroyed by European expansion, some of their bloodlines persist among the new settlers, primarily Western and African peoples.
Statute of Artificers, 1563
The Statute of Artificers was a group of English laws (1558-63) which regulated the supply and conduct of labour. In particular it set wages of certain classes of worker, it regulated the quality of people entering certain professions by laying down rules for apprenticeships and it restricted the free movement of workers. Effectively, it transferred to the newly forming Englishstate the functions previously held by the feudal craft guilds[1].
James I (1603-25)
James was not wholly unsuccessful as king, but his Scottish background failed to translate well into a changing English society. He is described, albeit humorously, in 1066 and All That, as such: “James I slobbered at the mouth and had favourites; he was thus a bad king”; Sir Anthony Weldon made a more somber observation: “He was very crafty and cunning in petty things, as the circumventing any great man, the change of a Favourite, &c. inasmuch as a very wise man was wont to say, he believed him the very wisest fool in Christendom.”
Powhatan Confederacy
Powhatan Confederacy, group of Native North Americans belonging to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). Their area embraced most of tidewater Virginia and the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. Wahunsonacock, or Powhatan, as the English called him, was the leader of the confederacy when Jamestown was settled in 1607. The Powhatan are said to have been driven N to Virginia by the Spanish, where their chief, Powhatan’s father, subjugated five other Virginia tribes. With Powhatan’s own conquests, the empire included, among some 30 peoples, the Pamunkey, Mattapony, Chickahominy, and others likewise commemorated in the names of the streams and rivers of E Virginia. They were a sedentary people, with some 200 settlements, many of them protected by palisades when the English arrived. They cultivated corn, fished, and hunted. Of his many capitals, Powhatan favored Werowocomoco, on the left bank of the York River near modern Purtan Bay, where Capt. John Smith first met him in 1608. The English soon seized the best lands, and Powhatan quickly retaliated. To appease him, he was given a crown, and a coronation ceremony was formally performed by Christopher Newport in 1609. Peace with Powhatan was secured when his daughter Pocahontas married (1614) John Rolfe.

John Smith
Captain John Smith (c. January 1580 – June 21, 1631) Admiral of New England was an English soldier, explorer, and author. He was knighted for his services toSigismund Bathory, Prince of Transylvania. He is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America atJamestown, Virginia, and his brief association with the Virginia Indian[1] girlPocahontas during an altercation with the Powhatan Confederacy and her father,Chief Powhatan. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
House of Burgesses- assembly used by colonists to consolidate power.
Gender ration as of 1660- 6:1 female to male
22 March 1622 The Indian Massacre of 1622 occurred in the Colony of Virginia, in what is now United States of America, on Friday, March 22, 1622. Though he had not been in Virginia since 1609 and was thus not a firsthand eyewitness, Captain John Smith related in his History of Virginia that the Indians “came unarmed into our houses with deer, turkeys, fish, fruits, and other provisions to sell us”.[1] Suddenly the Indians grabbed any tools or weapons available to them and killed any English settlers that were in sight, including men, women and children of all ages. Chief Opechancanough led a coordinated series of surprise attacks of the Powhatan Confederacy that killed 347 people, a quarter of the English population of Jamestown
Covenant of Works/Covenant of Grace- Adam and Eve ideas of native’s innocence
Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904)
In the book, Weber wrote that capitalism in northern Europe evolved when the Protestant(particularly Calvinist) ethic influenced large numbers of people to engage in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment. In other words, the Protestant work ethic was a force behind an unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism.
John Calvin
John Calvin (Middle French: Jean Cauvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later calledCalvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions provoked a violent uprising against Protestants in France, Calvin fled to Basel, Switzerland, where in 1536 he published the first edition of his seminal work Institutes of the Christian Religion.Calvin’s writing and preachings provided the seeds for the branch of theology that bears his name. The Presbyterian and otherReformed churches, which look to Calvin as a chief expositor of their beliefs, have spread throughout the world.
John Winthrop
John Winthrop (12 January 1588– 26 March 1649) obtained a royal charter, along with other wealthy Puritans, from King Charles I for the Massachusetts Bay Company and led a group of English Puritans to the New World in 1630.[1] He was elected the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony the year before. Between 1639 and 1648, he was voted out of the governorship and then re-elected a total of 12 times. Although Winthrop was a respected political figure, he was criticized for his obstinacy regarding the formation of a general assembly in 1634, and he clashed repeatedly with other Puritan leaders like Thomas Dudley, Rev. Peter Hobart and others. puritan priest 1604
“Visible Saints”- Visible saints were people who appeared to be godly Christian people who would go to heaven when they died. Strict Puritans in colonial days only allowed visible saints to worship with them because they thought that the church of England was blasphemous for allowing everyone to worship in the same way. They were revered because they were open about their beliefs, and they influenced Father William Joseph Chaminade. (Source: Wikipedia)
1 minister for 415 people (vs. 1 for 3,200)
Harvard College, 1636
Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson (baptized July 20, 1591[1][2] – August 20, 1643) was a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group. Hutchinson heldBible meetings for women that soon appealed to men as well. Eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaim her own theological interpretations of sermons. Some, such as antinomianism, offended the colony leadership. A major controversy ensued and after a trial before a jury of officials and clergy, she was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.[3]

“Governing the Tongue” Governing the Tongue explains why the spoken word assumed such importance in the culture of early New England. In a work that is at once historical, socio-cultural, and linguistic, Jane Kamensky explores the little-known words of unsung individuals, and reconsiders such famous Puritan events as the banishment of Anne Hutchinson and the Salem witch trials, to expose the ever-present fear of what the Puritans called “sins of the tongue.” But even while dangerous or deviant speech was restricted, as Kamensky illustrates here, godly speech was continuously praised and promoted. Congregations were told that one should lift one’s voice “like a trumpet” to God and “cry out and cease not.” By placing speech at the heart of New England’s early history, Kamensky develops new ideas about the complex relationship between speech and power in both Puritan New England and, by extension, our world today.

Oliver Cromwell’s republic
Charles II (1660-85)
December Days, 1641
Adultery Act, 1650
Levellers and Diggers
The Black Dog of Newgate Prison
John Locke’s Fundamental Constitutions
Goose Creek Men The Goose Creek Men
The “Goose Creek Men” were English planters, some who came to S.C. from Barbados. They settled nearby, soon became wealthy through the Indian trade, and conducted an illegal trade in Indian slaves and with pirates.
William Berkeley vs. Nathaniel Bacon Autonomy from crown

Hernando de Soto’s rampage (1540s)
Iroquois Confederacy
Hugo Grotius
“Town Destroyers”
Walking Purchase, 1737
Grand Settlement of Montréal, 1701
When the French, on behalf of fur trade monopolists, inserted themselves into the rhythms of First Nations societies in the early seventeenth century, they became enmeshed in regional hostilities. Finally in 1701, after nearly a hundred years of recurrent warfare, French and natives joined together in a spectacular summit to sign a treaty that would end the atrocities and guarantee peace for more than a half century

Kidnapping of Eunice Williams, 1704 chose to remain with canadian mohawks
Cherokee (Iroquoian) vs. Creeks (Muskogeean)

Asante, Dahomey, Oyo
1660, first black majority
Barbadian Slave Code, 1661
York County, Virginia, 1690s
Partus Sequiter Ventrum
Sartorial laws
Enslaved percentages: 2% (New England) and 78% (West Indies)

Diana, the pagan goddess- statue of liberty
Malleus Maleficarum (1486) – anti-witch handbook
“He for God only, she for God in him” (John Milton, Paradise Lost)
Godsib or gossip
“Whore” and “slut” vs. “knave” and “fool”
Spectral evidence
Special Court of Oyer and Terminer
Rev. Increase Mather – president of harvard, defended witch hunters (or at least the judges and lawyers)

Pawnage vs. Chattel Slavery
Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
New York, 20% enslaved
South Carolina’s black majority
Washington, Lee, Byrd
Charleston slave exchange
Spanish Florida

Population density (50 vs. 13,000 per square mile)
“Rustics” and “potatoes”
Literacy rates
Endogamy rates
“Give him the bag”
Femme sole and Femme couverte
Book debts vs. promissory notes
Top 10% of wealth test
Fence-viewers, hogreeves, selectmen

Source Criticism, Broken Bones

Paul Fischer
Natives of the Americas
Writing Assignment 1: Source Criticism, Broken Bones
HST 223 – 005

The defeat of the Aztecs occurred primarily in two phases, each of about one year, separated by a short period in which Cortes was driven out of Tenochtitlan and forced to take refuge with his near-by allies. This short period, in the summer of 1520, opens a window into the mind of one individual that was central to the nature of the Spanish Conquest and typical of the conquistadors that wreaked havoc across one of the world’s most prosperous regions. Also, the response of the Spanish, seen through both Cortes’ letters to the king and a soldier’s fond memoirs reveals a great amount of what sort of bias exists both for the Spanish and those that compiled the Broken Bones.

Cortes portrays himself as the ultimate European leader, but in fact he was only as a bully allowed to enter the chocolate factory. The response of the Aztecs to his presence is surprisingly muted initially, as he topples religious centers and humiliates Montezuma, suggesting a hatred from the Aztec people for the feared emperor and his deities, an impression that would have been reinforced by the evil of the Spanish.

There are lots of explanations for why the small Spanish force was able to topple one of the greatest empires in the world, but these explanations are equivalent to saying a bully is stronger than his victims, or better trained. The situation in Central America was not one of particularly exciting technology or warfare, but simple savagery. This is seen by analysing the bias of Broken Bones in order to gain a better understanding of the actual sequence of events, and more importantly, what Cortes was expecting to achieve with his brutal actions.  The barbaric manner in which the Spanish mass amputated natives’ hands or killed innocents, often unrelated to battle of any sort, terrified the natives into submission, which allowed Cortes to prey upon them further.

In his letters to the King, Cortes tends to justify these actions primarily through religion. As a part of a systematic eradication of a Satanic religion, the crown would tolerate any treatment of its subjects.  The expulsion of the Spanish from Mexico City is described by the natives as a direct result of the Spaniard’s greed, which  overtook them as they entered a new city. Cortes’ account of the event describes his pragmatic attack on a plot to poison or kill the Spanish and their allies.

Regardless, some factor, whether it was just Spanish greed or native hostility, arose that created anonymity between the two. Also it is known that Cortes responded in a characteristic manner, massacring the natives at one of their important warrior festivals analogous to Easter in importance and in date.  That Cortes wished this conflict to be viewed as a betrayal rather than unprovoked murder shows that he has some consciousness, at least in communication with his homeland, of the cruelty of his actions. With Montezuma losing control, and the Spaniards engaging in worse and worse behaviour such as raping women or pillaging delicate sculptures for ingots of precious metals,  nobles or other leaders in Aztec society may have attempted to grab control by driving the Spaniards out. The probability of this, however, is low because of the strictly hierarchical society in which the Aztecs lived that would not have allowed them to disobey their god-ruler, Montezuma.

The cruelty of Cortes is seen over and over again in his journey through Central American, and the religious setting of this massacre is typical for him. Among the most complete accomplishments of his conquest was the eradication of the indigenous religion. His favors for the catholic church include both hastily rededicated temples and priests, as well as killing prominent individuals involved with religious services. As Montezuma was treated with the worshipping reverence French nobles later gave to the Sun King, it is possible that Cortes had difficulty discerning between the upper and lower classes of society.  Thus his massacre of heretic dancing warriors may have actually been the first violence between the Spanish and the upper classes of Aztec society, resulting in bloodshed and warfare, where before the Spanish were only abusing peasants (with the exception of course of Montezuma).

The affluence of the Aztec civilization may have awed the Spanish, who would certainly have been overcome with greed, but this would not make Cortes any less shrewd in his actions. Where Broken Bones places the blame for the massacre squarely on the Spanish, and less directly, their greed, it is perhaps better to consider that the noble class of the Aztecs was highly militaristic and relied on their leader, Montezuma, for guidance. Cortes made his first mistake humiliating Montezuma, but after that he realized the use of a puppet ruler. This is seen in Broken Bones as he attempts to re-establish the power of Montezuma before killing him (literally described by the Spanish as an accident with their swords) and running for the woods. The greater mistake was in the massacre of innocent dancers, which may have been simply Cortes’ way of blowing off steam after the nobles refused to acknowledge Montezuma anymore (though they  were still far too scared to actually threaten Cortes). In this massacre, there must have been some element which enraged the Aztecs freshly, and more deeply, than the humiliation of their ruler. This could have  been the killing of influential nobles, warriors who wielded real power in Aztec society. This isn’t certain, but it is sure that the group who controlled the Aztec government was angered by the massacre at the ritual dancing in a way that the Spanish desecration of Temples and Emperor could not.

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