Published Articles

Lake water quality parameters

(Secchi reading, chlorophyll filtration, freezing of water samples, etc.)

Canfield, D.E., Jr., C.D. Brown, R.W. Bachmann, and M.V. Hoyer. 2002. Volunteer lake monitoring: Testing the reliability of data collected by the Florida LAKEWATCH program. Lake and Reservoir Management 18(1):1-9.

Obrecht, D.V., M. Milanik, B.D. Perkins, D. Ready, and J.R. Jones. 1998. Evaluation of data generated from lake samples collected by volunteers. Journal of Lake and Reservoir Management 14(1):21-27.


Published Articles

Macroinvertebrate Bioassessment

(various modifications)

Engel, S., and J. Reese Voshell. 2002. Volunteer biological monitoring: Can it accurately assess the ecological condition of streams?” American Entomologist 48(3):164-177.

Fore, L.S., K. Paulsen, and K. O’Laughlin. 2001. Assessing the performance of volunteers in monitoring streams. Freshwater Biology 46:109-123.

Frost Nerbonne, J., and B. Vondracek. 2003. Volunteer macroinvertebrate monitoring: Assessing training needs through examining error and bias in untrained volunteers. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22(1):152-163.

Gowan, C., M. Ruby, R. Knisley, and L. Grimmer. 2007. Stream monitoring methods suitable for citizen volunteers working in the Coastal Plain and Lower Piedmont regions of Virginia. American Entomologist 53(1):48-57.

Penrose, D., and S. M. Call. 1995. Volunteer monitoring of benthic macroinvertebrates: Regulatory biologists’ perspectives. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 14(1):203-209.

Published Articles

Transparency Tubes

Anderson, P., and R.D. Davic. 2004. Use of transparency tubes for rapid assessment of total suspended solids and turbidity in streams. Lake and Reservoir Management 20(2):110-120.

Published Research Papers

Secchi depth; Florida LAKEWATCH studies

All the listed papers rely heavily or exclusively on Florida LAKEWATCH data.
View PDFs (Click on Dan Canfield or Roger Bachmann.)

Note: In most cases volunteers also collected and processed water samples, including filtering samples for chlorophyll.

Bachmann, R.W., C.A. Horsburgh, M.V. Hoyer, L.K. Mataraza, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2002. Relations between trophic state indicators and plant biomass in Florida lakes. Hydrobiologia 470:219-234.

Bachmann, R.W., M.V. Hoyer, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2003. Predicting the frequencies of high chlorophyll levels in Florida lakes from average chlorophyll or nutrient data. Lake and Reservoir Management 19(3):229-241.

Brown, C.D., M.V. Hoyer, R.W. Bachmann, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2000. Nutrient-chlorophyll relationships: An evaluation of empirical nutrient-chlorophyll models using Florida and north-temperate lake data. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:1574-1583.

Caffrey, A.J., M.V. Hoyer, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2007. Factors affecting the maximum depth of colonization by submersed macrophytes in Florida lakes.Lake and Reservoir Management 23:287-297.

Hoyer, M.V., J. Winn, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2001. Citizen monitoring of aquatic bird populations using a Florida lake. Lake and Reservoir Management17(2):82-89. Note: The second author is a volunteer monitor! According to lead author Mark Hoyer, the volunteer made many significant contributions to the manuscript.

Hoyer, M.V., C.D. Brown, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2004. Relations between water chemistry and water quality as defined by lake users in Florida. Lake and Reservoir Management 20(3):240-248.

Hoyer, M.V., C.A. Horsburgh, Daniel E. Canfield, Jr., and Roger W. Bachmann. 2005. Lake level and trophic state variables among a population of shallow Florida lakes and within individual lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62:2760-2769.

Hoyer, M.V, J.L. Donze, E.J. Schulz, D.J. Willis, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2006. Total coliform and Escherichia coli counts in 99 Florida lakes with relations to some common limnological factors. Lake and Reservoir Management22(2):141-150.

Terrell, J.B., D.L. Watson, M.V. Hoyer, M.S. Allen, and D.E. Canfield, Jr. 2000. Temporal water chemistry trends (1967-1997) for a sample (127) of Florida waterbodies. Lake and Reservoir Management 16(3):177-194.

Published Research Papers

Secchi depth; non-Florida LAKEWATCH studies

Note: For some of the studies volunteers also collected and processed (including filtration for chlorophyll) water samples that were later analyzed by professionals.

Bruhn, L.C., and P.A. Soranno. 2005. Long term (1974-2001) volunteer monitoring of water clarity trends in Michigan lakes and their relation to ecoregion and land-use/cover. Lake and Reservoir Management 21(1):10-23. This study uses Secchi data from Minnesota’s Citizen Lake Monitoring Program to analyze trends on 71 lakes.

Heiskary, S.A., and C.B. Wilson. 1989. The regional nature of lake water quality across Minnesota: An analysis for improving resource management. Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 55(1)71-77. This analysis of hundreds of Minnesota lakes uses Secchi data collected between 1977 and 1987 by Minnesota’s Citizen Lake Monitoring Program.

Macdonald, R.H., G.A. Lawrence, and T.P. Murphy. 2004. Operation and evaluation of hypolimnetic withdrawal in a shallow eutrophic lake. Lake and Reservoir Management 20(1):39-53. A 9-year Secchi depth dataset collected by volunteer monitors was the main data used in evaluating the effects of a drawdown on a Canadian lake.

Smeltzer. E., and S.A. Heiskary. 1990. Analysis and applications of lake user survey data. Lake and Reservoir Management 6(1):109-118. Secchi disk readings by the Vermont Lay Monitoring Program and Minnesota’s Citizen Lake Monitoring Program, as well as professional chlorophyll and total phosphorus measurements on volunteer-collected water samples, were paired with user perceptions of lake quality.

Smeltzer, E., R.A. Kirn, and S. Fiske. 1999. Long-term water quality and biological effects of alum treatment of Lake Morey, Vermont. Lake and Reservoir Management 15:173-184. The study used Secchi data from the Vermont Lay Monitoring Program.

Published Research Papers

Identification or characterization of aquatic organisms

Delaney, D.G., C.D. Sperling, C. Adams, and B. Leung. 2008. Marine invasive species: Validation of citizen science and implications for national monitoring networks. Biological Invasions 10:117-128. The crab distribution and abundance findings reported in this article are all based on volunteer data.

Ellis, S.L., and D.F. Cowan. 2001. Volunteer-based monitoring of juvenile American lobster, Homarus americanus. Marine and Freshwater Research 52(8):1103-1112. Article reports volunteer-collected density, size, and abundance data on juvenile lobsters in Maine.

Hodgson, G. 1999. A global assessment of human effects on coral reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38(5):345-355. All data for this research study were collected by teams of trained recreational divers with the Reef Check program. Participants identified indicator organisms (fish and invertebrates) and substrate types.

Published Research Papers

Water temperature and salinity

Zhang, Y., F.X. Fu, E. Whereat, K.J. Coyne, and D.A. Hutchins. 2006. Bottom-up controls on a mixed-species HAB assemblage: A comparison of sympatric Chattonella subsalsa and Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) isolates from the Delaware Inland Bays, USA. Harmful Algae 5(3):310-320.

Field data collected by the Delaware Inland Bays Volunteer Phytoplankton Monitoring Program on temperature and salinity during blooms of two phytoplankton species were used to supplement professional scientists’ data obtained in lab cultures of these species.

Published Research Papers

Secchi depth and salinity

Ott, J.A., R.M. Duffy, S.E. Erickson, K.S. Fuhr, B.A. Rodgers, and M.A. Schneider. 2006. Comparison of light limiting water quality factors in six Florida aquatic preserves. Florida Scientist 69(00S2):73-91.

The study uses six years of monthly Secchi and salinity data from eight estuaries collected by the Charlotte Harbor Estuaries Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Network.