Indian Protected Area Evictions: Contemporary Shortages in Housing and Water Supplies

Indian Protected Area Evictions: Contemporary Shortages in Housing and Water Supplies

Paul Fischer


Kaitlyn Morris

Indian Protected Area Evictions: Contemporary Shortages in Housing and Water Supplies

        From the first years in which Indian Protected Areas were established chronic problems with overcrowding and resource scarcity have created tangible difficulties for residents and authorities in such regions as have been allocated to be set aside. A veritable consequence of these obstacles to peaceable development has been one of the most tragic of the common issues facing populations. Protected areas have become inhabited by not millions but tens and hundreds of millions of people periodically, degrading both the population forced to take shelter in such wilderness as well as producing a domestication of the those lands, comprising the incidental benefits and direct objectives of the land. This is not an issue limited to India, but one which extends across Southeast Asia. Various solutions have been proposed and carried out, notably wide scale Protected Area Evictions (PAEs), and recent attempts have been made in an academic fashion to describe and quantify the scale of the degradation as a human rights and environmental catastrophe.

It will be helpful to use water shortages in order to examine PAEs as an extended function of the rights to water with many of the same trade-offs as well as potential solutions. Causes for rising water prices can range from government eviction programs in India to water privatization in Bolivia (Letnar Cernic, 317). Profit is not always a motive, and a non-governmental organization, FIAN, contaminated a river in Peru (316). In such cases the role of blame-bearer becomes of a greater focus, as many corporate or non-governmental interests wish to see governments take sole responsibility for the actions of corporations on their sovereign territory (332-3).

PAEs focus primarily on governmental involvement in the shortage of resources, in India that means land. Frequently, however, there are other acute necessities which are being met ranging from food in the rainforests to water in the desert. The involvement of corporations can occur in two ways, as a result of pollution which denies those around them water or when the price of water rises as a result of their activities, which also denies the inhabitants access to clean water. It can then be said that there are two ways that people have a right to enjoy access to water. These include entitlements and freedom (Cernik, 315). The UN has determined that freedom from micro-organisms and sufficient water for survival may be an entitlement, but in order to have freedom in access, humans must also have enough water to pursue irrigational, or other means of power consequent to the access.

It will be helpful then to return to the PAEs as an extended function of the rights to water with many of the same trade-offs as well as potential solutions. Causes for rising water prices can range from government eviction programs in India to water privatization in Bolivia (Cernic, 317). Unlike the example of the Indian PAEs, where national and international law match, the national laws on access to water in many areas has no resemblance to the freedoms and entitlements which are outlined and enforced by the UN. One solution successful amongst British corporations which can be played out on an international scale as well, is to play the dynamics of the balance of power by recognizing the external obligations of a business and ensuring that the obligations of the corporation to human rights are also met by the competing rivals of businesses responsible for the action (341).

        In particular there are unsuccessful solutions which have been examined as component to the issues within that proposed by proponents of PAEs. To understand the problem within Indian forest reserves, it is first necessary to look at the housing crisis as a function of modern human rights extant and protected in the Constitution of India in a way not completed in other countries until much more recently. This can be seen in urban areas such as Mumbai in which crowded masses produce a one billion dollar market for landowners at a massive cost to the individual rights internationally guaranteed which include “resources, capability, security, and power” each of which are explicitly stated as part of the full range of human rights from adequate housing to access to information by Amnesty International (Hohmann, 153). In India a Supreme Court Justice re-emphasized this basic human right as integral to the expansion of minimum living spaces from 225 feet per person to 400 (Hohmann, 162). Modern legislation in other countries, while less fundamental to an understanding of social and legal structures in those countries, also has created a basis by which inhabitants have a right to both rehabilitation and compensation in the event landlords in these slum areas are found to be guilty of property negligence.

        The fact that these questions are coming to the forefront of a critical effort by citizens is indicative of a scale in tragic outcomes which has not been faced in modern history that is encapsulated in the city of Mumbai. There is a natural clash between the well-heeled citizenry who hope to bring Mumbai towards becoming a world-class city and the nearly 75% who live in slums (Hohmann, 136). That is a fact which is demonstrated by firstly, the population density statistic of the 400 sq. kilometer city that holds 18 million people, of whom one third live in an area of slums approximately the size of Manhattan, or 20 sq. kilometers. Urban solutions which hold promise for use in National Forests are the rehabilitation and compensation of inhabitants rather than treating these inhabitants as illegal anyway. Another is the possibility is the enforcement of international legal standards which consider the forced relocation of the poor to be a prima facie violation of their rights of habitation (Hohmann, 172).




Letnar Cernic, Jernej. “Corporate obligations under the human right to water.” (2011).

Hohmann, Jessie M. “Visions of Social Transformation and the Invocation of Human Rights in Mumbai: The Struggle for the Right to Housing.” Yale Human Rights and Development (2010).

Recognizing Growth Potential in the Aftermath of the Global Economic Recession

Recognizing Growth Potential in the Aftermath of the Global Economic Recession

Paul Andreas Fischer



Recognizing Growth Potential in the Aftermath of the Global Economic Recession

Glass-Steagall legislation was historically a prohibition of American investment in German Concentration camps and underestimated global antagonistic foreign threats; when viewed appropriately such an outcome was a certainty without this restriction in place. The prohibition on speculative loans using banking finances was also demonstrative of a long-standing disagreement between the billionaire families Rockefeller and Morgan, each of which had different views for the futures of their respectively massive fortunes built on industry in the former and upon military conquest in the latter and exorbitant returns on speculative investments. The Act worked brilliantly and allowed a basis of non-competition for domestic firms and industrial concerns for decades, though efforts to repeal it began as early as just two years after passage in 1932.

The United States is currently playing a dangerous game of recovering from a similar financial crisis while relying on foreign investments without this critical piece of legislation or an equivalency in place. Consequent to this has been stunted growth, exorbitant relative prices for large firms and relative impoverishment of the average worker. In order to evaluate the potential for growth by enforcing an optimal level of foreign investment through direct political means, a proof will be offered which demonstrates the hypothetical optimum investments in the recent past and the way those decisions can be replicated and watched play out for the long-term.

Foreign Direct Investment as a Result of Limitations on Banking Investment Capital

Each year an optimal level of foreign direct investment (FDI) can be seen as a function of the expected return on local investments and the return on foreign investments against the available stock. Financial securities play a role here as an economic function of the annual return on labor, or profit to the economic system from a domestic perspective. Contradiction is currently extant in the way that variance in the various forms of investment interacts with the cost of finances to produce a viable quantity of resources which are demanded.

There is no way to endorse the historical efforts which were made to open up American investment in foreign nations beginning with low levels of funding allocations to banking overwriting which were permitted as early as 1935. One fundamental problem with early attempts to repeal the effort which have been exacerbated in recent history, including the successful repeal of the Act, is constituted in the nature of the difference of the coefficient of inward investment to GDP and the outward investment to GDP.

Research conducted on nations up from the 1970s until the 1980s indicates that one dollar invested locally is equivalent in terms of GDP, funds lost to inefficiency that report to bank’s bottom line but which are lost to the general economy, is in fact worth 3.5 dollars abroad (Desai, 7). This means that under current market conditions, assuming normal statistical variations in investment, there are investment opportunities which should be directed outside of the domestic economy. An example of that is one of America’s major trading partners, China, which is among the ⅔ of the world which has not fully completed the transition towards democratic procedures. Current tax rates in China retain and reallocate ½ of income as taxes and in turn regional FDI, though this is low compared to many nations which claim higher rates of national income.

Repeal of Glass-Steagall as a Function of the Propagation of Democracy

American investments were not appropriately regulated during the 1930s, and the nature of the investmetns which were made played some role in the development of the Second World War. While the Rockefeller oil and industrial concerns did invest in Japan, the investments were targeted to prevent the boycott of specific regions which were beings starved out by the dictatorship (Moran, 262-4). Speculative investments which had been permitted by repeal efforts and compromise in the legislation in question allowed major investments to the dictatorship in Germany itself, which required direct negotiation with the leadership there. A leading financier for the Morgan family sat upon a German bank until 1940, shortly before the outbreak of war and well into the period of atrocities.

Incentivization to repeal Glass-Steagall and to condemn its fabricators is deterred by the reality of the economic situation with one of America’s primary trading partners at the time of passage, Germany, which was actively liquidating the investments through the Holocaust and had a government structure which could not support the reception of such funds. This means that, while these economic theories represent financial instruments which were not publically available at the time, had they existed it is likely that the coefficient for the bulk of such investments at the time was zero. Virtually none of the returns on American FDI in that scenario were being appropriately returned to the American economy, which demanded a complete prohibition of the leakage, something that was achieved for a short time period through passage of critical legislation, and restricted slightly with the American Banking Act of 1935.

For perspective, a similar situation has been reached in present day Bolivia, a nation whose capital is entangled with a large percentage of American foreign trade. The threat posed by the planned termination of American trade deals in 2022 for American firms downgrades the credibility of long-term claims which are made by the World Bank and other financial institutions which use the dollar as a standard of prosperity. The regional instability which has seen similar deals cancelled with Argentina as well as international nature of the cancelled deals with Germany and other NATO allies make this an act of warfare which is as terrifying for diplomats as for economists. Most importantly, it demonstrates a long-term consumption demand of financial capital which has historically and will currently not be sufficient to meet the basic demands of the population contained within the geographical boundaries of Bolivia as well as other nations.

Glass-Steagall and the Victory of the Cold War

Many trade deals are reciprocal in nature, so they require an influx of goods or services in return for goods or services. An exception is foreign aid, which is usually, though not always in the case of complementary goods such as military equipment that requires training, excluded from FDI estimates. Controlling this phenomenon through the Glass-Steagall Act, while not responsible for the fall of the former Soviet Union, was certainly a necessary component for the survival of the American economic system. Prior to the Doha and Monterrey Declarations, capacity building was not part of prioritizations efforts in foreign investments, so this change in global financial policy may significantly alter or change those decisions (OECD, 32).

It is only possible to view this as a matter of terms in contrast to the historical cliometric analysis of American investments at the time intrinsic to economic developments. The same is true of the current economic situation. The economic analyses revealed that the return to GDP from inward FDI during this period was indistinguishable from zero (Desai, 6). That means that FDI to the United States had been targeted in such a way that complementary products had to be bought in foreign trade at a loss or which would have no overall economic impact, ie reserve or surplus items.

Meanwhile, American investments abroad lost over two dollars in opportunity costs for investments which were made at home (Desai, 8). This does not yet prove that Glass-Steagall provided a necessary barrier to bad investments and saved America from falling to an economic crisis during the Cold War, because the barrier has already been demonstrated above to have saturated the domestic financial market with adequate funding as to prohibit effective addition to GDP. The question which emerges is whether thirty to forty cents on the dollar is still good trade, when the alternative of domestic investment will siphon funds away from other investment efforts.

Further research proved that savings encouraged an increase of spending of 26 cents for each additional dollar of domestic savings. This means that with Glass-Steagall, the proportion of FDI was bordering as inefficient already. Had Glass-Steagall been repealed during the period of research, then it can be safely estimated that the national reserves of cash liquidity would have been under threat as the shock of additional fund for foreign investment created an inefficient market. It is not a question of whether, but how, a critical limit of minimal reserves would be reached, prohibiting local and foreign investment and representing the financial insolvency of America.

Current Economic Forecast and the Return of the Glass-Steagall Era

There is no way for private industries to fail to take up the responsibility to save the United States, something which has occurred in the past. It can be implied that the lack of such a patriotic effort during the 1930s demonstrated foreign subversion in the economic system outside of that authorized by international treaties and obligations. There are a number of potential crisis regions which require both immediate and long-term attention for reasons which go beyond the financial, such as humanitarian or military, which have been addressed.

Impermeability of financial institutions to such an economic meltdown and foreign subversion is a state which is not attainable. In the short-run re-interpretation of fundamental American legislation will be necessitated in order to achieve and maintain a state of adequate financial security. This cannot be the long-term solution to a fundamental flaw in negotiating with despotic or even only partially democratic allies and trading partners, or former trading partners.

By adding a fail-safe which catches speculative investment, whether foreign or domestic, before it begins to lose compared to savings investments, the American economy can return to the natural rate of growth for the leading industrial nation in the world. Had the rates of growth observed during the time period in which loans inspired by the Glass-Steagall Act were in place, the decade after 1932, the standard of living in the USA experienced today would have been experienced by the early 1960s, the average American worker would be earning one million dollars a year by 1990, and today upwards of 4 million dollars annually. More importantly, the top 1% would not be able to collectively buy dictatorships and despotic governments to open them to democracy and trade, but individually buy them, opening the world to such a democratic expansion in social justice, welfare, and economic well-being as has not been rivaled in the history of humankind. It has been demonstrated that the returns during that period were not fabricated, but only the consequence of sound financial theory applied prudentially to national investment trends through noninvasive and logical expansion of the rewards and consequences of modern financial instruments


Desai, Mihir C., C. Fritz Foley, and James R. Hines Jr. Foreign direct investment and the domestic capital stock. No. w11075. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005.

Graham, Edward M., and Paul R. Krugman. “Foreign direct investment in the United States.” Washington, DC (1995).

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Foreign direct investment for development: maximising benefits, minimising costs. Paris: OECD, 2002.

International Environmentalism: CBD to Marine Expansion

International Environmentalism: CBD to Marine Expansion

Paul Andreas Fischer


Professor Katlyn Morris


International Environmentalism: CBD to Marine Expansion

Sustainability efforts today are not only being led by scientists, but also by storytellers. There is still a place for scientific progress in the field, and books written by academics such as E. O. Wilson do lend both a level of credence and outreach not just to communities in America, but also in more severely impacted areas, but perhaps because of the dominance of scientific evidence the field has experienced the largest period of growth in human history. There are a few critical techniques which develop an effective agency or community in preserving the natural resources which have been made available to a government or people.

The late 1980s saw the rise of businesses compliant with the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and represented an attempt by the private sector to outgrow the problems such as health consequences and ecological destruction which were being and continue to be experienced (Morris et al., 9). By protecting national rights to contaminate areas with pollutants, the CBD proved too narrow in its approach. This signified a significant improvement to early environmental efforts which relied heavily on governmental agencies to achieve specific goals such as the creation of an endangered species list and promotion of the framework for global co-operation on matters of natural concern.

None of this was lost in importance, however, and each provided important precedence for the international explosion of preserved natural resources. Beginning during the Presidencies of George Bush and Bill Clinton, the definition of protected areas was expanded to include significant amounts of marine territories. For the first time, the actions of those who hoped to conserve the environment began to match the expansion of industrial concerns.

Technically existent since 1958, with the Law of the Sea (Board OSNRC, 146), current news has seen the establishment of record marine preserves established under George W. Bush and Barack Obama in the United States. American efforts have led internationally, but a resolution in 1994 by the UN created a legal obligation for the creation of such reserves, an extremely effective measure (149). That legislation represented a trend of growth which has continued unchecked and which saw the size of marine reserves increase by ten-fold from 1970 to the date of signature.


Board, Ocean Studies, and National Research Council. Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystem. National Academies Press, 2001.

Morris, Katlyn, Nelson, Ingrid, Mendez, Ernesto, Ali, Saleem. (2015). International Environmental Studies (1st). USA: Cognella.

Recreational Marijuana Data Integrity Verification

Recreational Marijuana Data Integrity Verification

Paul Andreas Fischer



Recreational Marijuana Data Integrity Verification

The purpose of this effort to maintain cybersecurity will be to identify trends in community activity, usage, and coding on three webpages. This will be measured in a weighted per capita membership inclusive of adjustment for last month marijuana usage according to statistics of diagnoses of marijuana use dependency in the last year sourced through the National Institute of Health, statistical significance testing for key HTML or python coding which may be present on the pages ranging from common use terms such as margin and italic/bold to design oriented coding such as getOptions and fix, and finally using a theoretical W3C validation scheme borrowed from a co-operative effort by employees of Drop-box, Google, and Mozilla.

An effort throughout will be made to avoid redundancies in data and to reduce reliance on contingent terminology in order to establish statistical significance in further analysis. While this will not be used to justify any legal actions or hold significant ramifications for user, community, or legislative individuals or groups due to the hypothetical nature of the theories of security fundamental to the arguments provided, the data may be accessed and used publicly and reproduced. As with all research looking at differences in data, change over time will be critical to determining whether this is an appropriate sequence to validate the integrity of the media distributed. This data is accessed legally under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act as encryption research to enhance secure methods of encryption technologies (section 1201(g)), to measure and protect personal privacy (section 1201(i)), and security testing should readers wish to check their own computer, computer system, or computer network (section 1201(j)).

Data results

Per capita membership or following:

Conservative estimate,

Vermont Community, Vermont Collection, Colorado Community

.085%, .075%, .6%

Keyword search statistical significance test from raw test raw data with high-end tail comparison

“input” – Vermont Community, Vermont Collection, Colorado Community

“_” –  8335, 8933, 8816

“”” – 10,916, 11,181, 10,670

“head” – 48, 49, 49

“fix” – 12, 12, 15

“array” – 108, 110, 108

“marijuana” – 41, 57, 21

“cannabis” – 37, 29, 4

“meta” – 22, 21, 22

“content” – 240, 252, 259

“function” – 2264, 2256, 2264

“getOptions” – 3, 3, 3

“window” – 420, 417, 420

“element” – 125, 125, 125

“null” – 5226, 5489, 4582

“try” – 155, 159, 158

“dump” – 53, 54, 53

“exec” – 51, 51, 51

“recreational“ – 16, 24, 17

“google” – 183, 181, 205

“script” – 79, 75, 79

“true” – 151, 160, 127

“$” – 284, 284, 284

Theoretical Validation Scheme

This scheme has been chosen because it allows authentication of not only the server, which is standard in such attempts, but also the content which has been posted to the respective pages. With a variety of pegged user handles and other contributions involved in the creation and maintenance of a controlled substance which is limited in distribution to those over a certain age, and in some locations can be met with severe legal repercussions, there is an intrinsic value to vetting cyber information.

In order to avoid such misunderstandings, a thorough read through of all source data was initiated and completed with the following results. Rather than sifting through user data or implementing a cryptographic hash system recommended in the theoretical scheme, evaluating the cross-origin data leakage to identify reconnaissance activities by potential or real attackers was initiated (SRI, 5.3). This is both non-intrusive, experimental, and potentially more accurate for the purposes of identification than traditional methods of code evaluation.

Discussion of data, results and conclusions

Cannabis Use Rates and Trends

The growth in Colorado is under 30% in recent years, marking a substantially larger presence than has been found in Vermont. Statistical analysis found ratios of 1:1.25:1.5 from .2% of the total populations of the respective states in the Vermont Collection, Vermont Community, and Colorado Community that were admitted to the hospital for potential marijuana dependent symptoms according to a recent update from the White House which cites data from 2010. Multiplied by a cohort with an average life expectancy of 78 years, this data could encompass almost 60% of current marijuana users. This could also comprise the entirety of the population have used before entering High School, according to a report released by the UN in 2014.

A statistically interesting point that is not addressed in this paper is that the trend for admission for marijuana related episodes shows a dramatic variance in those two populations, as the number of marijuana users per capita was about 30-40% higher in Colorado at the time. Potential explanations include the presence of higher potency marijuana in Vermont due to lack of effective regulations during the transition period of decriminalization. Another could be adulterants such as lead which decrease the flashpoint at which a joint or a bowl is lit, increasing the temperature at which smoked material is absorbed or the popularity of edibles which may be more potent than a smoked product, as there are nearly a third more tobacco users in Colorado per capita than Vermont.

Keyword search with statistical significance analysis

A perfect match was reached in four of 22 source code searches, nearly 20% of the total results. Taken as an outlier result, this demonstrates definite significance. Two of three quantitative forms found a perfect match in exactly half of the searches. The natural odds of these events occurring are one over 4.2 times 100,000,000. This determines that there is a high probability of interactivity occurring between these web-based pages.

While there are no prohibitions between communications of two online communities, this can also serve as a template to verify that such communication is not occurring between any of the communities and communities tailored towards those who underage. It is also a possible indicator of a malware presence, which could include a BOTNET, synthetic code injector algorithm, sniffing agents or most likely a combination of all of the above. In order for any confirmed statements to be made with only a statistical analysis, causal proof of intent of harm or defamation and malware cyber-activity must be demonstrated. To accomplish this, an experimental form of subresource integrity is being modified and taken advantage of, referred to above as cross-origin data leakage.

DIV and Cross-Origin Data Leakage

The initial read-through looked great, though there is a major qualification which ought to be addressed present one time only in all three communities that likely represents a violation of amendments to the CFAA in 1984. Due to recent legislation and expansion of that act, these consequences could be quite serious if not administratively addressed and the responsible posts promptly deleted, though no legal responsibilities exist unless the display represents an extension or whole of a small business. Colorado had significantly greater evidence of hash use, but all three communities/collection presented enough to provide a strong sense of security. Cross-origin analysis demonstrated that “content-originated” was indeed activated upon execution of the HTML. No flag presented or evidence of any tampering of any kind.

Further analysis of the entirety of the source code, around 30 solid pages for each community, revealed the presence of a flag which discontinues the cross-origin protections and which could allow a JSON style attack, gaining access to passwords or other confidential credentials. This should allow a violation of the “same-origin” policy and may have been used to determine what content is present within the cross-origin resource. Whether this setting is coded on or off, the threat level is ultimately low.

Valuation of any Potential Threat to the Pages

A discretionary valuation of a low threat level had to be ultimately determined as users accessing the site are still protected by Google security and terms of use, i.e. dedication to privacy outlined above in this document and codified in recent US law for cyberspace, as well as amendment to the Constitution. The presence of an “Anonymous” omission of cross-origin protections is present at one time in the HTML code of all three websites. That does not indicate that the tool has been exploited. Unless there is an experimental lab underway through Google, the only data which should be accessible in the event of a general breach throughout the company would be the user names and profiles of individuals who are on the pages.

However, the possibility that it is a “wait and see” placement should be treated with caution as well as corrective measures should be taken to eliminate the offensive code from the pages. It is worth mentioning, once again, that the only parties which have any liabilities for such a piece of code are those who posted the sequence and any small business owners involved with the pages that may have turned a blind-eye or aided the malware. Possible legal explanations which could indicate that one did not know about updates to the CFAA or if the code had been prepared before 1984 may be possible, but even if it is the case, does not mean that the threat or potential threat should not be snuffed immediately.


Braun, F., Akhawe, D., Weinberger, J., & West, M.. Subresource integrity. W3C working draft. (2014).

The Digital Millennium Copyrights Act. 17 U.S.C. § 512 (1998).

Kesteren, A. van. Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (URL: W3C (2014).

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Recent statistics and trend analysis of the illicit drug market. (2014).

W3C Recommendation. HTML5, A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML, W3 (2014).

Notes on Killswitch

Notes on Killswitch

Criminality as a crime of curiosity
crime of outsmarting
-Aaron Swartz

Information as the new gold, oil
Like Diamonds, worth trillions of dollars
Control yields wealth and power

Eg control of information on climate change
saves trillions of dollars in regulation

Tim Wu
open and culturally dynamic, similarities to the radio and other industries
early decentralization, chaos and unpredictable
yields later consolidation, which feels good, but later we rue what we have lost

Lawrence Lessig
desire for our own blog, tweet about the candidate etc
engagement as owners in the political process
freedom is embedded in the political technology

The advent of the mouse into the silicon bubble
the advent of net neutrality by Tim Wu
creates the history of the information industries
a powerful and abundant opportunity to control minds of people in the nations as a company which controls information as a function of powerful monopolies… forces which are interested in reversing the interests of the internet into a commercial project -> the function of money in the cooperative commons of communications threatens the republic
This is a fundamental issue to the formation of the United States which remains to this day

Peter Ludlow
covers online gaming company
Sims online and use of cyberprostitutes yielded viral release of the blog but banning from the game, conventional success and all…

Lawrence Lessig
Legal corruption vs. illegal corruption
belief that money buys results in congress which is protected by the constitution
The difference between the tiny slice of the population that makes decision and the will of the people

Tim Wu
insensitivity of the public to the concept of money in politics
whether the network can remain the place of political ends

Lawrence Lessig
to allow for overcoming government corruption through the unit organize for specific political roles, an end to end p2p architecture
not to say that there is a likelihood for victory, but there is no likliehood if the structure of the internet is lost

peter ludlow
there will be no victory or losses through the internet, sniping and fighting over the internet is occurring behind the curtain, and the rigged game needs to be unraveled
Hacktivist as one who takes traditional technologies and repurposes it for social and political causes
using tech like twitter and using it in ways which were never expected, for revolution
CFAA in the wake of Wargames
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act prohibits use of a computer for a use which was unintended
Fine print contains thousands of things which are against the law… eg. age creates a felon status from the use of many online services which are limited to 18 and up
So then the system decides which characters are threats to the system and pursue them

Aaron Swarz – Creative Commons 2006
The internet provides a communication which is nonexistant in books or other services
designed RSS at 14, 15 CC and 19 on infoGami which combined with Reddit
But Aaron becomes a hacker
Lawrence Lessig: we need to celebrate the activity of hacking as the use of tech knowledge to advance a public good

Guerilla Open Access Manifesto: information is power, but like all power those who have it do not want to share
Release of documents prohibits stopping of documents

Cory BoingBoing
PACER illegally accessed by Aaron Swartz
Then began work on JSTOR

The history of interesting work, of scientists should have been available to people
access to a wide variety of scholarly articles
the access fees were substantial and locked out from scientific legacy
a little bit of magic makes those available to everyone
civil disobedience was worth it for the access to the scientific knowledge of the world
arrested by MIT and Secret Service

Google and Verizon power over net neutrality vote
Tim Wu: legality of blocking hulu or bing no longer allowed by the carriers of internet service
the once exciting new media becomes increasingly closed and dominated by the oligopoly
government like monopoly because they can be used to their ends
The use of monopolies to give republican candidates the vote with the institution of the telegraph lines in the United States, has been replicated with the cyber era
Governments tend to like information monopolists, which creates a system which is very close to fascism

1984, George Orwell: “don’t let it happen”
shadowy figures or systems as a part of the intelligence system which Ed Snowden believed int he goodness and nobility of the intentions to free people overseas
Over time, exposure to true information had not been propagandized in the media
requires actual involvement in the SUnni republic, the NSA specifically targets the communcations of everyone by default
communication and storage of data creates a dangerous capability for anywone to have

Peter Ludlow:
The extra information is actually undermining security, would rather have the NSA out there spying on terrorists etc…
Data mining as ineffective, despite the talk from the NSA, the real possibility needs to be addressed that it may be making us less safe

Lawrence Lessig
building the machine to deal with the terrors, has now been reprocessed to address every system which has been described
the threatening of liberty or innovation

Computer Fraud Prosecution of Aaron Swartz was targeted as a result of his politics

Kim Dotcom
Aaron Swartz became a political target

Aaron Swartz was charged with four felonies for his actions
there has to be laws and control on the internet
necessity to shut down criminals and those stealing foreign jobs….

Chris Dodd
Democratic lobbyist MPAA for motion pictures, which would include laws passed through Congress, and created the support as a victory lap which would be a simple and efficient way to take pirate sites down… the fundamental difference between being on the side of the pirates and allowing content owners to get the government to legally shut down such websites by force

The Stop Online Piracy Act 2011
Sort of activity which should be celebrated, not regulated when films are remixed… recombination was attempted to be prohibited,
addressing the possibility that internet regulation would end the internet
attitude of a tyrant, the fighting back of the citizens begins as organic movements by citizens saw a change occur in the mechanisms

Websites protest anti-piracy bills
demonstration of psychological dependence on the MPAA, but now the giant has woken up, which allows the framing of issues into this libertarian and liberal alliance. The Internet has woken up.

Hard to believe to remember the story, that there was no dream or nightmare, but the understanding that this would occur again

There is no question that the content industry is behind this, the saga of the movement of Dotcom
“don’t vote for the guys who are against internet freedom”
the billions of dollars which were lost by multinational corporations because of the behaviors
description of Aaron Swartz as a hero
Swartz is followed by 9 violations of the CFAA
bankrupted and facing 35 years in jail, he hung himself

Nothing was known by his girlfriend about what happened, he had rational depression
this was a person who was pushed to the edge by a bullying by our government
there are a thousand things each of us could have done, and we have to do because he has now become an icon and an ideal to fight for for the rest of our lives

Carl Malamud: Aaron swartz was not a criminal, the accusations levied against him were crimes against justice, a misuse of the criminal system.

why there was an expectation to ever win as long as there was a corrupt government

Ed Snowden as an expression of creativity, love, friendship all recorded
authority ot deputize corporate america to do dirty work for NSA
millions were paid through PRISM other systems for data
becoming an instrument of government action
using a system to go back in time and discuss every decision which has ever been made
Importance of the charge of espionage even when he did not work for a foreign government
do we want prison for life for people like that?
What is the determination that is important to you?
How was Snowden able to outmaneuver the top spy agency in the nation twice on the way to Moscow?

Episodic invasions of privacy, included virtual invasions of privacy
The question continually arose for the surveillance with restrictions for the way that data and confidence can be invaded
We knew the story was coming
The NSA does not wittingly collect data on millions of Americans
Snowden lied in the law to everyone but Greenwald was the columnist who broke the story
9/11 commission made the US government information clear without connection of the dots, not a problem of collecting information but of knowing what the data points are, exemplified by the Boston Marathon killing
Duty to uphold the constitution of the USA, enslaved part of a 1984 dystopia, Aaron Swartz as a guy who did what he ought to have done, in the minefield of copyright
extraordinary influence extant, especially on the democratic party, created necessity for information to flow freely, but no mercy was shown by Obama Administration to cases which involved copyright

The Obama necessity to appear strong in dealing with Edward Snowden

Government as a corruption of capitalism
creation of a benefits governmetn through necessary procurement of money, not through illegal bribery precisely, about economies interested in protection not in competition

Tim Wu
Downtown New York had a plan to preserve urban areas which has been paralleled in the national forestry work, creates a change in consciousness which yields a change in net neutrality

Peter Ludlow
shifting consciousness about race, environment, women’s rights in the 60s and another one is occurring today, a raising of consciousness, suspicion that this is just the beginning stages…
Fundamental corruption

Lawrence Lessig
We are one people who have promised to make a government that is dependent on one people, if you are contingent to one people you are party to such a system.

The importance of unity in democracy

The Calling of St. Matthew by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio in Urban Warfare of the Baroque Period as a Function of pre-Nationalist Demarcation from Absolutism in Form as a Function of Style

The Calling of St. Matthew by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio in Urban Warfare of the Baroque Period as a Function of pre-Nationalist Demarcation from Absolutism in Form as a Function of Style

Paul Andreas Fischer


Professor Kelsey Brosnan


The Calling of St. Matthew by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio in Urban Warfare of the Baroque Period as a Function of pre-Nationalist Demarcation from Absolutism in Form as a Function of Style

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio began a movement of art that has permeated society in a distinct manner through modern cultural representations of dance and photography, while defining social norms in which members of the greater artistic community perform their roles. The use of lighting to psychologically dominate the onlooker, formulaic precision as a pavement to success, and use of the body politic to emphasize the expression of urban warfare demonstrates the reactionary expansion of Caravaggio’s work into a rational artistic development of the Baroque period. Rejection of the customary transposition in religious ideals seen in The Calling of St. Matthew (figure 1) by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio developed a perpetually tangible coherence in artistic representation of rigor in geometry.

Use of religious terminology in definition of the artistic work of Caravaggio gave a biographical value to the narrative in work, and a detailed analysis of content and form will be provided. This painting is an oil on canvas piece which defines the vestiges of the Baroque era of wild abandon in the Renaissance decades before a definitive break in the social norms which define that period expire to the rigor necessitated by technological advances and community demands which were offered to and placed upon artists. Key to this development are the expansion of literacy and primacy in approach which work convergently to create some new dynamic in the popular reception of art.

Literacy of the Artist and the Community

This work is decidedly formal in nature and the cross-sectionality of the lighting can be reversed such that every character in the painting takes on a reversal in attitude. The furrowed brow of the young man with a light rapier at his side is not now allowed to expand in anticipation, perhaps of a fight or potential winnings (figure 6). The young apprentice by his pile of money conversely drawn downwards by study which could have been an upwards gaze in anticipation from a reflection off of the coins in hand (figure 4). Finally, the surprised onlookers at the center of the piece would have their brows furrowed by the new directionality of the light (figure 3). Fittingly, the only characters who would be unchanged by such a shift in lighting would be Christ, St. Matthew, and St. Peter. Religiously, those who had been portrayed in many ways before could now be read in one light by each literate member of society individually by virtue of the invention of the Gutenberg Press.

Sometimes the vernacular can mean artistically the explicit or provocative, which cannot be emphasized or stated in an evaluation of the good that literature, music, and dance revived from the spread of literacy to match a centuries-old explosion in population through Europe without a complete discussion of the manner in which the new form of communication and discourse was received. Shortly, this indicates the lasting nature of the upheaval in customary transposition which has been  In order to fully develop this argument, national ambitions which are set forth in artwork and poetry in generations subsequent to the critical year 1600 will be laid out. A smooth transition in form directs the ambitious but less effective rhetorical nationalism in the work of Rubens to the rigor in form found from the work of Velázquez.
The work of Michelangelo de Caravaggio establishes the vernacular visually in the painting The Calling of St. Matthew. The purpose of the investigation behind the contrast and lighting in the work determines that this painting was a shocking and terrifying experience to behold for clergy and audiences contemporary to the time.

Exploration of the style of the painting will not suffice, however, to achieve the conceptualization of the manner in which the artistic work of Caravaggio influenced later artists and his own community. More importantly, it misses the way that his own actions also were ignored by a community lost in the logic of the Classical period. While the religious statement seen in the painting was to be so outdated to a rigorous decision making process for artists’ early development as Christianity sprang outwards across Europe in the Middle Ages, the rejection of small miracles and divinity for the reality of early urban community’s recognition of great miracles and of visions which could overwhelm the artistic desire would be embraced in a natural sense.

Looking at the painting directly, it becomes clear that a break in normalized hierarchy is used to emphasize the calm nature of the elder. While the young man is armed for a monetary transaction, the rest of those involved are equipped with little more effective than a breadknife. Striking light into the room adds to a sense of surprise and depth. These are critical elements which will be dealt with in respect to later and more intensive efforts at artistic expression and lend credence to the nature of the rigorous investment component within his work.

Caravaggio’s Style and Technique Rejects Typification as a Parrot of the Paints

This is an example of the painterly before the Baroque painting had emerged. Within a century, the entire continent would reach the same stylistic panacea. Not all was as it seems, however, and no modernist completion to the form would be emphasized through such work.

Use of lighting in Caravaggio gives insight into the lifestyle of the painter and makes a significant difference to the behaviors of the individual himself as well as the society around him. It is well documented that he may have been illiterate, and this reputation as a parrot of the paints dominated the interpretation, both of his violent acts of inebriety as well as his professional artwork, which critics found for centuries. In the early 20th century, evidence emerged that his failure to pay rent in fact instigated a series of events which precipitated the misunderstanding after theft of his books and belongings.

The Calling of St. Matthew shows both literacy and astute care to the setting of his work. Unlike the squalor which surrounded his work, a strange brevity in accuracy is found to point at a single object which emphasizes a concept, in this case coins and arms. In order to understand how this stands out as an exceptional case of narrative painting, mysterious circumstance should be addressed as a possible factor in the development of the painting.

The nature of a mysterious in opposition to a certain circumstance can be seen in the series of paintings Mary de Medici Cycle by Peter Paul Rubens, specifically Henry IV Receiving the Portrait that currently resides in the Musée des Louvre in Paris. In this painting, which does date to slightly after the work discussed of Caravaggio, the lighting is focused to the bottom part of the painting, which focuses the viewer’s eyes upwards in admiration, but only in part of the painting. Later artwork will take advantage of the invention of tall candles and other dramatic forms of illumination to subvert the adoration of absolute monarchists into an intimidated dogma of nationalism, which begins with The Calling of St. Matthew.

Nationalism comes close to describing the fervor which surrounded leaders at this time, and a prayer contemporary to the time describes the excitement and anticipation of this moment as, “Virtue will return, with the laurel crowned,/ and her just favors bestowed upon true merit,/ will reawaken the excellence of the arts.” This was a prophecy as much as a prayer, and the discussion of the divinity of the right of King Henry IV can be evaluated as a function of glorification of absolutism in form (Rosenberg, 11-12). Creation of the “adorable” using inferior lighting is a short distance in theory from the glorification in themes which will become characteristic of absolutist nationalism.

An explorative journey is induced which changes the understanding of the painterly style which is not present in this painting. The patron of the piece is seen to be female, which reaffirms the communication between the artist and the painter and is indicative of the artist’s wish to conform to the needs of the painting. There is natural rejection which presents in the work of Caravaggio, and pastoral biblical scenes are accompanied by dramatic intercommunications.

One critical point which proves the literacy of Caravaggio through The Calling of St. Matthew was the inclination of Matthew towards immediate conversion (Culler, 7). This could not have occurred over time, it must have been the result of a vision upon the sight of Christ, and the actions of Peter, who points or gestures. Those are actions which indicate that all but the young see this apparition.

The young man is bewildered by the narrative. The buried head seen in figure 4 demonstrates a lack of familiarity with the use weaponry in a manner complicit with the ideals at hand. Soon gunpowder made even the walls and heavy fortifications of politic and finance alike comparatively useless. The impact on mothers who cried over the spilt blood of warriors was greater with the urban conflict, and the changes culturally as well as politically are Cicorean in nature in a manner similar to the introduction of the short sword and hand axe in place of poles and spears that preceded them. It only cost a gold piece to satiate a tax collector, but a pound of flesh for a vengeful merchant, after all, according to popular culture of the time (Shakespeare, ll. 307-308).

Style as a Form of Intimidation

The style of Caravaggio could be imagined as a grotesque and primal pioneer of was destroyed and resurrected through the lens of the neoclassical style in the flames of Revolution. Invention of chiaroscuro, manipulation of light, and narrative rejection of nationalism was marked by his the manipulation of the viewer’s eyes through use of lighting. Evidence demonstrated in the work before, after, and contemporary to the work of Caravaggio shows that a rigor in style lends to the widely ascribed geometry and sobriety of later churrigueresque artwork. With a patron in the church, the appeal of an ordinary and communicative discourse between the artist and the poor, through such generally accessible characters as those found in the bible, is an attraction which remains present in successful artwork in modern history (figure 15). This makes the political impact of Caravaggio reactionary in nature. Finally, his work continues to reverberate somehow and the mass appeal of various types of lighting as well as politicization of artistry remain.

Evaluation of a religious artist using the tool which is found in discussion of customary transposition in religious ideals creates a necessity to first define and then to apply the terminologies of the relevant concepts. Karl Barth defines the term religiously, emphasizing with the introduction of a neutered spiritual power that “the customary transposition of the divine being into a neutral absolute, to an anthropocentricity which is secretly at work in response to the revelation of God” (Barth, 296). In order to capture the terminology artistically, some raw emotive power and controversy must be drawn upon. Both are present in the story and the actuality of the artistic work of Caravaggio in The Calling of St. Matthew.

It is natural for discussion of the small miracle to include that counteraction against a greater evil, or an organized crime. That fear was realized centuries later for descendents of the patrons of Caravaggio’s art. In the same sense, there is a natural pessimism in the work that followed a concept fostering the emergence of Caravaggio’s style such as Adam and Eve by Albrecht Dürer, an engraving from 1504 seen in figure 8. This accompanies and precludes other cultural representations which would have been contemporary to the Baroque period, including the literary masterpiece Paradise Lost by John Milton lyrically recounting a greater good, “he whom mutual league, united thoughts and counsels… glory never shall his wrath or might/ Extort from me” (Milton, ll. 87-111) such that the outline for the grounds in the introduction of a greater benevolence was set.

Keeping the viewer focused in a contemplative pose with their eyes downward reverberated throughout the intellectual communities and discourse, and maintenance of hierarchy can be correctly seen through the work of Caravaggio to be of paramount importance to the Christian ideology and European dominance which was subsequent to the inferiority of the plague and suffering of the previous generations. As Matthew is “in the act of conversion itself… realization is delayed for a brief moment” throughout the artistic work, this indicates a rigorous adherence to religious ideology which was characteristic of upheaval. In a certain way this was being retold and visually portrayed for the consumption of the masses centuries before the masses would have any access to but ripples of the artistic revolution.

Urban Warfare in the Renaissance and the Obsolescence of Older Technology

There is a personality to urban warfare which was unique to the moment when Caravaggio painted, and the weaponry in this painting may have been something akin to the use of arms by rap stars in today’s music videos (50 Cent, OK). What had been relegated to the realm of stories and the biblical testament of the slave driven work camps of the Romans was becoming a part of the every day, and needed great artistic projection of the imagery. At the end of the selection, confusion presented itself directly within the communicative style and a greater precision without hampering the style the artist found necessitated.

Returning to the painting, the hilt of a light rapier, nearly half the size of the older generations’ swords, developed to mobilize a new level of youth involvement in urban warfare (figures 12 and 13) which had been virtually nonexistent previously. The nature of this critical brutality that would later consume Europe’s young into the most deadly of wars to that point, the Thirty Years War, had already begun to surface before Calling of St. Matthew in as early as 1579 with the Vernichtungsstrategie exemplified by the quote “when soever he made ostying or inrode, into the enemies Countrey, he killed mane, woman, and child” from Northern Europe as hierarchy and size of armies began to increase (Parker, 205). Even as Vienna suffered continued sieges, quarrels amongst families enriched for the first time began to become imagined as the norm. The light which in earlier pieces of artwork such as Four Apostles by Albrecht Dürer encouraged the viewer to look up in childish adoration was replaced by a superior lighting that directed the scholarly contemplation of the higher concepts which were now being explored by artists.

In the representation of The Calling of St. Matthew, introduction of the presence of arms shows that the anarchic discourse of transactions without a market is not lost or reduced. More importantly, that young man does not draw or have need to use his rapier, loosely hung at his side, as satiated in the company of the benevolent as the thieves and vagabonds that preceded modern banking were satiated in the blood and belongings of those who failed to invest in the extortion implied in the transaction of security (figure 6). Whether urban warfare allowed by such light and deadly weaponry was transforming society by bringing the dead to the doorsteps and gutters of the investors and families who needed their sacrifice to survive or inventions which included complex architecture, modern locksmithing, and irreproducibility in art, bank notes, or identity made the brutality of ancient conflict insignificant is lost to the viewer.

Light weaponry as a focus of the work of Caravaggio is remarkable and unique to his own experience as a painter. Living in squalid conditions, unable to pay rent and in the center of this new norm of urban warfare which returned to the Italian countryside after over a millennia, the importance of the short sword and dagger required a familiarity with literature beyond the bible. It demonstrates a definitive knowledge of a complete classical education, of the sort only available at certain prestigious and ancient universities.

St. Peter shuffles in the painting with the encumbrance of the ceremonial blade, which makes the necessity for intentionality before use of such a weapon clear (figure 14). The young man is in motion, and ready to spring from the chair in an instant (figure 11). There must be some considerations to the communication from ineffective bronze weapons into the short daggers which made Roman Legions particularly deadly in nature, using the old to incapacitate victims and the new to extinguish naturally low rates of recovery.

Lighting in Constructive Outline Conducive to Caravaggio’s Vision of the Evolution of Warfare

The bazaar was a place of trade, meeting, and communication, something akin to the English pub and stock companies or the European banks, bars, and nightclubs which mark the modern era. The etymological comparison between bar as a shortened form of bazaar cannot be likely a direct mistake. An early architectural impetus for revolution can be found to hint at the extension and development of the futuristic means of communication and of exchange which separated exchange using financial instruments from the everyday ordinary emotions, sickness, wars, or even the youth interfering with fair and just transactions (figure 4).

With the introduction of a bourgeoisie and merchant class, or the capitalist, across Europe much later than the rest of the world, finally the rigid social hierarchy of nobility and royalty began to weaken. Good things come to those who wait, and the late onset of such a change also meant that the extent and the velocity of the social changes were intensified compared to other parts of the world. Family structures changed dramatically and in addition to such social architecture, change can be more readily observed in physical architectures of buildings and artistic styles that, until then, had been relegated to religious Cathedrals within structure and from beyond. With these structural elements, the nature of the artistic work would also become redeveloped to emphasize the new religious concepts which were taking hold of various modes of cultural expression.

In The Calling of St. Michael, Michelangelo Caravaggio carefully selects the accompanying crowd who will oversee the failed transaction, that was dinner ending in harsh words. The passage which the painting tells of both scores in directionality and in content from the nature of sickness and health. In the painting, something is pointed at and another young man, possibly one of the sinners but in all likelihood an apprentice to the tax collectors, is armed and alerted, but still cautious (figure 5 and 6). This gives insight to the concerns of new forms of urban warfare, enabled by finer expertise in technological construction of the modern sword, or in this case rapier, and allows yet a further modernization of the biblical themes with a poignant defense of the older characters in the painting. It also redirects the exclamation of Christ, that doctors should be left for the sick into a message against the interfamilial wars which plagued Europe at the time of Caravaggio rather than a plea to the tax collectors and sinners who ignored the colonies of lepers, and victims of disease.

Poverty as an Underlying Source of Urban Warfare

Expansion of the concept of artistic representation of the economic transformations protecting or endangering those close to artists elucidated the concerns of disease and reference to escape through a subtle domination. The conceptualization of such direction did not exist prior to this eclipse of the outward momentum of the stylistic conflagration which Caravaggio was indicative of in nature. It did absolutely no good for his work to see superior lighting, representation of the act of conversion and introduction of money to shock the onlooker without a dramatic change in the nature of the onlookers themselves (Wendt).

Velázquez not only reproduced into and was part of a greater movement in enhancing the rigor of artistic work that Caravaggio helped to ignite, but also extended the importance of lighting into a cumulative perfection in colors as well. The distortion which can be seen in his artwork (figure 10) tackles the difficult in artistic composition also provides an exceptional comparative factor to the themes of warfare among the work of Caravaggio. In the same way that a beam of light, robes and fashion indicates the holy or imperfect nature of Christ, the sinners and other characters, Velázquez can be seen to use green and brown to represent earth and growth of his patron, and the dashing warfare espoused therein (Justi, 75). As weapon increased in efficiency indicating use in urban settings, the armor obsoleted by the trends illustrated in the work of Caravaggio demanded a new attention.

For the first time since the establishment of a united Christendom through the Catholic Church, poverty became commonplace even among those of virtuous religious standing, an event which was immortalized in confrontations such as the arrest of Thomas Aquinas in England and later conflict in Protestant and Reformed Catholic leadership throughout greater Europe. The relationship between the financiers and the changing horizons of religion can be seen as an elderly man is at ease with his calculations but the traumatized young are hunched over their work (figure 4). More of this redefinition in artistic expression would be necessitated for Caravaggio to shrink from the reality of a coming compression in artistic means through scalable growth across Europe, as the form of stylistic development.

Execution of expansion from objectives to ideals for religious doctrines were not limited to this time period, but are definitely noted through work in this time period. Visually, Caravaggio demands a subtle attention in scale to the narrative pattern of his artwork by using bold lighting popularized in previous centuries to create a subservient and groveling audience, which reflected the ambitious attitude of early Church reactionism. The light beam seen is in a direct contrast with the dull window, and representative of both industrialism and makes an important point into the nature of the cross-vector lighting array (figure 9).

Representation of the small sins which were demanded through this new focus in lighting gave a contrasted conflict in behavioral response with the confusion of the new era of urban warfare, financial instruments misused in the familial sense, and scales of production which seemed to promise the near miracle of biblical scales. Such a demonstrative effort was not lost upon the focus of the productive capacities within the customary transposition as a neutered response to the miracles with whom God expected conflict and resolution from naturally evil forces (Barth, 296). Instead, a distinctively gendered substitution of miraculous episodes in constraint defused the patchwork which threatened to smother the rich and often disgustingly vibrant community culture surrounding the young and meteorically rising star of the artistic community. The biblical passage from which Caravaggio would have worked was likely an oral rendition, and this was an important message in how to reduce the influence of negative emotions to simply good words.

In subsequent generations, the narrative in his work found itself fitting as snugly as a globe by the chess set. The goals and objectives of artists not only had to change, but were finally able to. Some of this break was natural to the work of Caravaggio himself and the rest was stylistic and later demonstrated in The Triumph of King Henry IV (figure 2). Gambits as a form of artistic intellectualism aside, enforcement of the positionality of the viewers discretion gave a certain completion to development of the transitory nature found in artistic work.

Statuesque in Nature and Industrial Complicity in Form

The reach of the success of this new visual form of subjugation of the viewer must be captured through art forms outside of the painting. The work of Albrecht Dürer exemplifies the compression in artistic ambition typical of rudimentary nationalism (figure 8), and in Caravaggio a geometrical architecture and rigor is explored, but perhaps the most delightful expression of this, an execution of sorts after direct play in form, comes the work of the sculptor. These bring the lighting into a new dimensionality of style and further encrypts the intended phenomenon and feeling of release or absolution which is decidedly desirable.

Such an encryption in form has been recently designated through the work of Antonio Canova, and seen in Cupid and Psyche which dates to the French Revolution. On display at the Louvre, the granite relies on the psychology of the viewer to add the brilliant and dazzling light which refract through the wings of Cupid which are inconceivable through material means (figure 7). This demonstrates not only carefully prepared knowledge of the style typical to Caravaggio, but additionally introspective reflection on the necessity to mirror the work as painters moved from the Baroque into Rococo and eventually necessitated a return, a sort of folding of the artistic styles which intensifies viewers’ individual experience.

In the Calling of St. Matthew by Caravaggio, this encryption must be defined through the rigor of creative absolution and omission of a defined timeline for the investment in an imagined timeline that includes both the explicit and implicit as definitive to style. German analysts have attributed the violence in the work of Caravaggio to a “rough sexuality” which forces its way through his work into the creations often commissioned by church or competitors to engage a discussion of how it is Christ follows as the leader (Wilkens, 22-23). Focus on the cross-sectional lack of lighting seen through Christ and St. Peter to gain insight into the ways this can be accomplished, that darkness or evil must exist before the intimidating forces of good or light can force them outwards (figure 6 and 9).

Today, the customary transposition in religious ideals has spread across mass culture. The selfie pioneered by Marilyn Monroe (figure 15) as well as modern ballet and dance architectures are exhibitions inviting the drawing of conclusions about a societal lifestyle which is irreproducible today, and modern culture has become emblematic of his work across hundreds of years of development. Similarity to the development of the selfie momentarily impacting modern means of understanding the work of Caravaggio begins with the dominant lighting that forces the viewer into contemplation and continues in an imitative nature but difficult rigor in form all contributing to a truly successful implication of social means across the hierarchy of belief systems implicit in such artistic endeavors.

Forms of representation also play a distinctive role in cooperative norms from viewership directly throughout formidability in form. Tacit revolution is countered by the domination of the subject and framing of the object in a corporate sense of belonging. Without the use of direct narrative, such a technique becomes decidedly useless.

Fame from a simple snapshot is given by fashion in the work of Caravaggio and is not appropriately reproduced or encouraged in any way. The viewer would have had a direct and personal connection to the work which is not present in the artists but were typical of the time. This also speaks directly to The Calling of St. Matthew and the customary transposition of the individual miracle which is found in the painting. The following of the tax collector is in turn collected by Christ. With a simple idea, Marilyn Monroe opened a thumbprint sized pavement to fame for America’s women and opened the eyes of the rest of the world to social means of hierarchy which were being demolished in a way never seen without violence in history.

Rigor Beyond the Statuesque and Tertiary Analysis

The act of painting, as hunting and warfare, had been a primal endeavor of social malaise and bare necessity. Artistic and cultural works had historically pointed to the plague, to violence, or to religious discord for an inspirational sentiment, a trend which should have been accelerated by the patron system of the Renaissance. Caravaggio uncovers a unique connection to the divine as the customary transposition in evil is replaced by an altogether more terrifying equivalent in his artistic representation of the good and saintly in conflict to the developing sins of urban warfare and tyranny of misuse of financial instruments.

This is a benevolence which works in the face of the ordinary sins, multiplied through the time period in an extravagant fashion. That fundamental shift in religious thinking was a theoretical device of academic construction and development and the social creations of the Renaissance must be understood to complement political movements and a dynamic in confusion of style which has today been lost. That does not mean the authenticity of the moment has been lost.

The late latin poem dating from the early 13th century O Fortuna defines the shedding of the conceptualization of poverty as tied to sinful behavior and ushers in a new era of industrial concern for the masses. By the time of Caravaggio, the opera King Arthur by Henry Purcell began to introduce structure into the eardrums of Europe, a rigor which did not necessitate the rigidity of the older dullard implied by classical conceptions of those who approached their work as a separation of form from passion. By firmly placing The Calling of St. Matthew into a historical context, it has been possible to gain insight into the nature of urban warfare as well as the religious understanding of miracles underpinning a dramatic reconception of poverty in the modern sense of development.


Figure 1: The Calling of St. Matthew by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, 1600, oil on canvas, San Luigi dei Francesi.

Figure 2: The Triumph of Henry IV by Peter Paul Rubens, 1620, oil on wood, Met Fifth Avenue Gallery 630.

Figures 3-6: The Calling of St. Matthew by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, 1600, oil on canvas, San Luigi dei Francesi.





Figure 7: Cupid and Psyche by Antonio Canova, 1787-93, Musée de Louvre, Paris.

Figure 8: Adam and Eve by Albrecht Dürer, 1504, copper engraving, Museo del Prado.

Figure 9: Detail from The Calling of St. Matthew by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, 1600, oil on canvas, San Luigi dei Francesi.

Figure 10: Detail from Don Juan Francisco Pimentel (1584-1652), 1648

Figures 11-14: Details from The Calling of St. Matthew by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, 1600, oil on canvas, San Luigi dei Francesi.





Figure 15: Selfie taken by Marilyn Monroe c. 1940, obtained through Swann Galleries.


50 Cent, OK, You’re Right Shady Records/Aftermath, 2007.

Barth, Karl, Geoffrey William Bromiley, and Thomas F. Torrance. “Church dogmatics. 1st pbk. ed.” London/New York: T. & T. Clark International, 2004.

Culler, M. B. Self-reference in Caravaggio’s “Calling of St. Matthew” (Order No. 1442315). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I, 2007.

Justi, Carl. Diego Velazquez und sein jahrhundert. Vol. 1. M. Cohen, 1888.
Parker, Geoffrey. “The” Military Revolution,” 1560-1660–a Myth?.” The Journal of Modern History 48, no. 2 (1976): 196-214.

Rosenberg, Pierre. France in the Golden Age: Seventeenth-century French Paintings in American Collections. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982.

Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice (Vol. 7). Lippincott, 1916.

Wilkens, Albrecht, and Prof. Dr. Klaus Heinrich. Licht Und Gewalt Bei Caravaggio, 2010.

Warhol and the Importance of Moving in Two Directions

Warhol and the Importance of Moving in Two Directions

Paul Fischer
Professor Kelsey Brosnan
Warhol and the Importance of Moving in Two Directions
The artistic exhibition at the Fleming Museum at the University of Vermont was recently displayed as a celebration of architectures, of the 80’s, and will be followed by an exhibition of romantic art. Social disambiguation occurs when the work of great artists such as Warhol and Picasso glowers angrily across two exhibits in one museum at each other through their artwork. The liquid gel covered ‘Electric Chair’marks a distinct and international call of recommendation of the actions which are portrayed in the oils, inks, and pastels of other artists.
This was not only a presentation in photography with the illustration, but also a moralistic behavior, a set of judgements which were as clearly stated as the ancient tablet from Sumer which lies cooly outside of the marbled exhibition room, dating from 2885 BC. Beyond the introduction of photographic display, a poster for a film about Jean-Michel Basquiat took the exhibition beyond the traditional mediums of art exhibition: the viewer is encouraged to find subject material outside of the exhibition itself. That is fitting for a walking artist such as Basquiat.
As an exploration of a specific time period, there is also a progression which follows both rooms of the exhibition. Underneath the weighty Egyptian collection sits a glaring representation of the emptied fast food restaurants of the strips of modern corporatism, and represent the dominance of franchise, all too soon after the corporation overtook the individual or family businesses. Electric lights still glare, and the spirit of a material wasteland is emphasized in a Butlins-style photograph which hangs out quietly around the corner. While this is just a photographic preparation for the directionality which is enforced by Picasso, there is also a transitive quality for one who starts with the exhibit room containing works by Warhol and Basquiat.
A final note should be offered to the nature of the mediums offered. Three-dimensional art, lists, even a feather is offered as a form of artistic representation in the exhibition. Pen and paper to crayons are offered to make more than a point, but to invert the message of the work into the sublime. Yet somehow, with the liberation of Namibia, also correctly called South West Africa prior to the independence, a certain curiosity is evoked among the trends which are being emphasized. An almost arrogant statement of this moment in history is rebuked by the celebration of what was accomplished in Butlin-style photography.

This was a moment of great hope for the world, and for Africa: as independence was won the rich world fought epidemics and poverty in quite the same numbers as even the poorest nations. It was a moment in history where it seemed as though a senseless reaper demanded equal destruction from each of the continents of the world, and these were artists who caught this phenomenon and questioned it. One of Andy Warhol’s favorite pictures, of what appears to be a young Lou Reed with his eyes nearly closed, is separated by a decade from the electric chair which would define Andy Warhol’s career and initiate greater controversy and discussion than any of the antics, deaths, pranks, or mischief which had marked him as an artist. For him, this was a symptom of barbarity sustained by the rank ignorance and dormant ardor of a system of values which was missing a cog, or a piece of some sort, something which is illustrated at a later point in the exhibit.

Work Schedules for Survivors of Childhood Trauma Using the Stress Hormone Cortisol as an Indicator of Psychosis

Work Schedules for Survivors of Childhood Trauma Using the Stress Hormone Cortisol as an Indicator of Psychosis

Paul Andreas Fischer
Work Schedules for Survivors of Childhood Trauma Using the Stress Hormone Cortisol as an Indicator of Psychosis
 In order to understand the nature of critical responses to societal pressures, it is first necessary to evaluate the role of various negative outcomes which can be seen even today among functioning members of society. The establishment of such a control has allowed the establishment to flourish, and in order to maximize productivity and well-being a better coherence of the information at hand should be offered. Appropriate labor laws such as the prohibition of child labor, which began in the 1800s but did not meet modern medical standards of adulthood until the 1900s, and the elimination of the total war after the Second World War, have meant that for the first time, the medical community can address all instances of such trauma. There are no longer communities which “simply have to live with it” as a form of treatment as had occurred when labor was frequent for children or excessive work hours for adults. The consequences of elevated cortisol as a result of childhood trauma, forced work, or the number of older methods of inducing this state include physical damage to a specific part of the brain, degradation of memory and functioning, and even psychosis or irrational decision making.
 Some basic trends emerge, primarily that a healthy level of cortisol does indicate better psychological health, and trends across various physical responses as well. This paper will demonstrate that the primary unavoidable cause of increased cortisol extant in today’s society is childhood trauma through parental separation and a history of sexual or physical abuse.
Action and Physiological Response: Permanent and Impermanent Symptoms
 It has been well established that higher levels of cortisol are indicative of a number of societally unacceptable results, which include psychosis and lower left hippocampus volume (Mondelli, 116.2). Loss of parents have been shown to increase cortisol levels in victims even as adults (Nicolson). Parental separation and childhood adversities have also been shown to increase the levels of psychosis, in such a manner as to account for nearly all ER psychosis incidents in any given year (Morgan). This impact is found in victims with a history of sexual or physical abuse (Mondelli, 119.1). There is also evidence of elevated cortisol occurring in the course of a week with excessive stress and disrupted sleep patterns (Dahlgren). It should be noted that adults with PTSD suffer lower levels of cortisol after the initial period of shock, inducing symptoms including low processing speed, metabolism and other factors, though these are also normal responses for victims of head trauma (Cernak).
 Elevated levels of cortisol are a long-term human response to a traumatic incident, especially among those who are young and this is a result of continued changes to the brain which can only be simulated through a specific variety of factors. Concussion would be one of these, and the period of around a week after the initial 3 days of lower cortisol post-head trauma can help to show the physical and psychological impacts of elevated levels of cortisol. After two weeks, the victim would return to normal, which is not something that occurs in victims of childhood trauma. Excessive work schedules have also been shown to induce this increased cortisol release, though recovery can take weeks or months, depending on duration of the effects, and there is no reason that survivors of childhood trauma would not be in the same situation (Steptoe). This is a physical change which has also been found in college students recovering from a romantic break-up (Field).
Effects and Responses
 The use of cortisol to gauge the severity of trauma is not effective, though it does lend credence to the reality of its use for the purpose of evaluation if such an event occurred at all. The psychosis and lower left hippocampus volumes are not the only exhibitions of the damage from such an incident, which has also been shown to cause coronary heart damage (Dahlgren). In order to evaluate these claims, it will be necessary to turn to one of the only populations who do not have appropriate labor laws which prevent creation of such a state simply from taking on excessive work: the American elderly. As the brain ages the way in which information is processed changes so that a lower level of information can be processed before legitimate psychological harm can be done.
 Excessive work levels in this population leads to elevated cortisol and hippocampal atrophy (Lupien). This produces workplace dangers and harms which stem from memory deficits and cognitive dysfunction. In people who are younger, it is one way in which a psychotic episode may manifest itself, and indicates past or present trauma.
Predictive Indicators of Exacerbation of the Symptoms of Elevated Cortisol Levels
 The use of childhood trauma to enforce a social class structure is no longer present, though it is still not conceivable for all of those with parental separation, childhood trauma or excessive work schedules to operate from a prevention-based standpoint, and those who exhibit the symptoms will need to make lifestyle and personal choices which are appropriate for the predicament. The alternative includes many negative symptoms and a much higher rate of mortality from heart attack.
 Chronic use of marijuana has been shown to increase cortisol levels dramatically (King), though lower levels of THC administration have been suggested to lower cortisol release outside of statistical significance, as a female pregnancy hormone, prolactin, also blocks some effects of the product. That is a phenomenon which may explain how responsible adult users of the product have twice as many geniuses per capita as non-users, while those who use chronically and from a young age have only half as many (Fried). Moderate use of alcohol can increase cortisol substantially, or about double that of chronic cannabis use (Badrick). Like responsible adult use of cannabis, there is no indication of increased cortisol from light use of alcohol or beverages containing trace amounts of alcohol such as Kombucha. This runs about the same cortical increase as failing to quit smoking for heavy smokers (Steptoe).
Applications to Lifestyles and Conclusion
 Cortisol may be responsible for a great deal more than is currently recognized, and with it positive physical health consequences including heart disease are also enhanced. Legal lifestyle choices such as diet, work schedule, and substance use do play a role for some parts of society, and even though many decisions have been prohibited which can induce a dangerous release of cortisol, it is worth checking out what effects can be felt. Some decisions which are still recommended for the general population are dangerous for specific groups of people, and that is also something which needs attention. It can even occur that events outside of an individual’s control, such as parental separation, physical or sexual abuse, and even for a period head trauma can change the decision making process as it is elucidated throughout discussion.
Badrick, Ellena, et al. “The relationship between alcohol consumption and cortisol secretion in an aging cohort.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 93.3 (2008): 750-757.
Cernak, Veljko J. Savic, Angel Lazarov, Mirjana Joksimovic, Stevan Markovic, Ibolja. “Neuroendocrine responses following graded traumatic brain injury in male adults.” Brain injury 13.12 (1999): 1005-1015.
Dahlgren, Anna, Göran Kecklund, and Torbjörn Åkerstedt. “Different levels of work-related stress and the effects on sleep, fatigue and cortisol.” Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health (2005): 277-285.
Field, Tiffany. “Romantic Breakups, Heartbreak and Bereavement*-Romantic Breakups.” Psychology 2.4 (2011): 382.
Fried, Peter, et al. “Current and former marijuana use: preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ in young adults.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 166.7 (2002): 887-891.
Lupien, Sonia J., et al. “Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits.” Nature neuroscience 1.1 (1998): 69-73.
King, George R., et al. “Altered brain activation during visuomotor integration in chronic active cannabis users: relationship to cortisol levels.” The Journal of Neuroscience 31.49 (2011): 17923-17931.
Meewisse, Marie-Louise, et al. “Cortisol and post-traumatic stress disorder in adults.” The British Journal of Psychiatry 191.5 (2007): 387-392.
Mondelli, Valeria, et al. “Abnormal cortisol levels during the day and cortisol awakening response in first-episode psychosis: the role of stress and of antipsychotic treatment.” Schizophrenia research 116.2 (2010): 234-242.
Mondelli, Valeria, et al. “Higher cortisol levels are associated with smaller left hippocampal volume in first-episode psychosis.” Schizophrenia research119.1 (2010): 75-78.
Morgan, Craig, et al. “Parental separation, loss and psychosis in different ethnic groups: a case-control study.” Psychological medicine 37.04 (2007): 495-503.
Nicolson, Nancy A. “Childhood parental loss and cortisol levels in adult men.” Psychoneuroendocrinology 29.8 (2004): 1012-1018.
Steptoe, Andrew, et al. “Job strain and anger expression predict early morning elevations in salivary cortisol.” Psychosomatic Medicine 62.2 (2000): 286-292.
Steptoe, Andrew, and Michael Ussher. “Smoking, cortisol and nicotine.” International Journal of Psychophysiology 59.3 (2006): 228-235.

Unity, Expansion, and Rate of Change in Stylistic Interpretation from Baroque to Classical Artwork

Unity, Expansion, and Rate of Change in Stylistic Interpretation from Baroque to Classical Artwork

Paul Andreas Fischer


Professor Kelsey Brosnan

Unity, Expansion, and Rate of Change in Stylistic Interpretation from Baroque to Classical Artwork

The place of unity in the stylistic representation of space frontiers without a time period from which to operate is also lacking movement in this placement, conceivably speaking throughout the appropriate conceptualization of the comfort of that artistic form and representation. Connotation of belief in the fluidity of artistic difference can be felt within the artistic devices of expansion (Wöllflin, 164) and is found in the artistic work of Dirk Vellert. A genuine departure from the pioneering provincialism is found as the Reconquista is effectively discarded and the focus of artistic work begins to develop into a united demonstration of piety combined and bound to ungodly wealth.

Style is not neither logical nor is it itemizable (Schapiro, 2) and the transition from the primitive art form is one which finds direct loss of contact with the rational as a result of social unity and coherence in artistic expression. The expansion of such a development indicates a cognitive disregard for the reality of a material expansion into artistic form. This cognitive disregard both hinders the expansion of the singularity, preserving the local multitude as well as ensures that such an expansion must occur.

What style can be directly seen as is the Baroque development from classic art of the 15th century. As a constant form, this is definitely implied as a community singularity, which is seen in the art of newly relaxed artists in their approach to the expression of their work (Wöllflin, 156). The gradual change of artwork from Classical to Baroque in style is marked by the limitation to specific fields of development, as defined by the refinement of materials, procedures, and investment behind artistic endeavors. Finally, it should be seen in both unity and expansion that a greater singularity in style is found.

The concentration of wealth created a unique system of complexity in artistic style that found itself without a direction and yielded a yearning or longing for a return to simplicity of primitive art forms by the modern era (Schapiro, 4). Other factors which played a role included a spiritual communality which could not be experienced during the massive onslaught of death and poverty which marked European art forms in the centuries preceding that new era. Lack of style, then, as well as the primitive art form can be seen to be logical in nature. This brings a new meaning to the joke from Disney’s Beauty and the Beast, “if it ain’t Baroque, don’t fix it!”

In artistic expression, unlike architecture, for example, the illogical can be seen to have a positive attribution of form and projection in its appeal to both the audience and the social tapestry for which the artwork provides a distinct and complete excitement in form. The domination of unity can be seen in the lighting as well (Wöfflin, 162). This is the sort of individualistic conceptualization of the development of style which was singular across the artistic world at the time. There is a use for such an analysis, as it affects modern painters such as Escher who attempt to increase their artistic tension by disregarding the rigidity of logic in their painting or drawing almost to an extreme to achieve a level of modernity in style.


Meyer Schapiro (1904-1996), “Style,” 1953 [Excerpt, pp. 1-4]

Jonathon Blower H. Wölfflin, translator, & Evonne Anita Levy, editor, writer of essay. (2015). Principles of art history : The problem of the development of style in early modern art / Heinrich Wölfflin ; a new translation by Jonathan Blower ; edited and with essays by Evonne Levy and Tristan Weddigen. (Texts & documents).

Form and Content in the Modern Art of Paul Andreas Fischer and John Flaxman

Form and Content in the Modern Art of Paul Andreas Fischer and John Flaxman

Paul Andreas Fischer


Professor Libby Davidson

Form and Content in Modern Art

Style is the form which an artist gives to the content provided in their expression. My artistic expression can be seen in the form of an almost intentional stratification in complexity, as an illustrative quality is provided in the series of drawings which follow UVM campus through Shelburne Farms and the Ethan Allen Homestead to the Intervale and back to UVM. Silver Nickelback trees break the illustration’s contemplative power into a deft performance of nature in action and the community which encapsulates, protects, and preserves that natural bounty.

These are a combination of the fossils of nature, the trees, and water which have been dealt with in the collection. Figure 1, it can be seen that there is an expression of the elemental which is concentrated into work on leaves. These drawings have a similarity in style and presentation to the work of neoclassical artists such as John Flaxman, which is a connection that holds through the rest of the work. Simplicity in supporting lines and elimination through the curvature of interpretation, that is the complexity which lends drawing an intrinsic value of isolated value, in this neoclassical work creates a new utility in support of sculpture or graphic artistic representation shown as the artist declares to his young wife, “I am ruined for an Artist!” But in very little time, he finds that his sculptural talents are recognized after she travels to Rome with him and Banks, the greatest sculptor of the time once exclaimed, “The little man cuts us all out!” That was following some great investment in skill and labor by both the aspiring artist and those around him (Flaxman, 620-621).

In figure 2, a communication of art and style is found as nature finds itself in an almost text or storybook setting. With appropriate room for framework, it began a discovery of a style which helps to place nature in a setting with people that is communicated throughout the work. This is a simple tree by the road, and is finally one that is built appropriately.

Only describing a tree as a natural phenomenon in a setting which has been cared for by people is not the only opportunity for the style to emerge, but this artwork can also be seen to develop the conceptual ideals of charm in a familiar setting. The viewer can identify with the art in a classical sense. This is seen in a series of transformational drawings which come together as a projection of the emphasis on personal identification with the past, one of which can be seen in figure 3.

The historical connection can be seen with the accurate representation of the Charlotte Whale, found in the museum at UVM Perkins Geology Museum. A holographic T-Rex now looks over the display, which is among the earliest demonstrations of global climate shifts and the dramatic consequences for the Earth which have been impacted by them in the past and present. An error in the directionality of the head is extant and can be seen in figure 4. Due to the curvature of the spine, however, this may have been appropriate in nature to the actual position of the whale in motion in a sea once present here in Vermont.


Flaxman, John. (1853). Littell’s Living Age, 37, 620-621.


Figure 1 – Leaves by Paul Andreas Fischer

Figure 2 – Illustrated Tree by Paul Andreas Fischer 

   Figure 3 – Prehistoric Tree by Paul Andreas Fischer

Figure 4 – Charlotte Whale by Paul Andreas Fischer 

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