Societal Impacts of Alcohol and Marijuana, Revisited: the German Model.

    In Germany, over the last 25 years the consumption of alcohol has fallen by a third. Legal marijuana use rates (in the Netherlands or abroad, or in decriminalized settings at home) have increased in 18-24 year olds from 7% to 28% during this time period. The economic growth has been enormous, suggesting a link between the two, in order to confirm it would be advantageous to compare the numbers with those outlined in the data from my previous paper on societal impacts of alcohol with a low to moderate impact on the national IQ. In this paper it was demonstrated that while the first 5-10 points of IQ decrease would remove 80% of the geniuses or highly gifted workers from a community, more than this had limited effects until the damage reaches 20 or 30 points. This is because the population begins to move along a straight line on the bell curve, where the initial damage from lead, or once the pollutants in the environment are removed, from illegal or decriminalized marijuana (it should be noted that in a legalized setting, marijuana has been associated with a societal increase of 5 points in IQ, while contaminants or parasites in illegal or decriminalized pot have been connected to a decrease) or alcohol, moves along a steep exponentially defined curve.
    Lead was removed around the same time as this trend in drinking occurred. According to the DAX, the Deutsch (German) stock market, the value has risen by over 4 or 5 times since then, as seen in this graph (1989-2014) from under 2000 points to over 9000 points. The GDP, which is predicted by the DAX, a list of around 30 of the heavyweights in the German economy, to a great extent, also has increased in this period from under 1500 to nearly 4000. These are both in keeping with the increase indicated by an increase in geniuses of 500% in an intellectual property dominant economy (such as Germany or America) as found in most of the modern world.
DAX index of German listed companies:

German GDP from 1970-2014

     While this can seen initially as true and true and unrelated, the fact that previous research in SPECT scan imaging has made the connection between responsible drinking and low cognitive functioning concrete in the last few years seems to indicate that this link is more causal than correlative. This can be seen in previous research into light and moderate alcohol or marijuana use this year. That the hypothetical model outlined in the research into societal impacts of these substances fits exactly to the statistics gathered in the real world is encouraging as well, and demonstrates that this is a legitimate and probably accurate method and application of the scientific information available.×137.png×137.png

Easiest way to remember Electromagnetic radiation energy levels!

In order to remember the EMR (electromagnetic radiation) spectrum there is a joke. I thought it up while studying for my chemistry exam and thinking about the beginning of each part.
A hippie walks into a fun house and says: “GrUVI MiRa”
The order of electromagnetic radiation according to energy levels is Gamma Rays, Ultra Violet light, Visible light, Infrared light, Microwave light, and Radio waves
I hope this helps someone studying for an exam!

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat (2010)

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
Paul Fischer
Portfolio: Labs

One of my favorite parts of science is the history behind it. Some laws of the universe that scientists in the past believed in have been disproven. Others, however, were so well crafted that they remain in place for hundreds of years. In this lab, we learn how with limited technology, James Joule was able to lay down some of the most fundamental groundwork for modern physics.

The lab is rather simple, and though we had a rather high percentage of error (nearly 40%), we could see how Joule was able to use known relationships between heat and work to create a quantifiable formula (4.186J=1Calorie). This discovery allowed scientists to find specific heats for nearly every substance. That is vital to many things, from engine parts to calculations for electricity. 
As much as showing us how Joule’s work can be used, this lab showed that some science can withstand the test of time and be important even centuries later. It also exemplified the relationship between work (turning the tube filled with steel shot) and a real temperature change, and had us quantify that using Joule’s work.

Avicenna (2010)

Paul Fischer
Portfolio: PAUI 1

Sir Isaac Newton is known for his famous three laws, in which he is said to have laid the foundation of inertia, momentum, and gravity. In fact, over 700 years earlier, there was an Arabian physicist, Ibn Sīnā, who is considered the father of momentum as well as laying the groundwork for inertia. In addition to his work in physics, Avicenna, as he is usually called by Europeans, held the position of one of the most influential Arabian scholars for over a thousand years.

In the 900’s, as Europe struggled through the dark ages, Arabian scholars rescued and improved upon vast numbers of classical work. The resulting renaissance brought algebra and geometry to new levels. Avicenna was a part of this explosion of knowledge; as a Persian living at the turn of the millennia, his books were still used by European universities in 1650. His influence in many fields is immeasurable. 

The complicated theory of motion he drew up in his Book of Healing is almost the same as Newton’s theory of inertia, but hundreds of years earlier. Avicenna held that motion came from an inclination, which was a force given to an object and could only be dissipated by outside forces such as air resistance. In a vacuum, he predicted, an object would continue onward forever until stopped. The synergy of the Islamic golden age and Aristotelian and other Greek ideas are evident: his work on inertia went on to become the basis of the theory of impetus, which attempts to explain the resistance of projectiles against gravity.

Continuing with this idea, he also attempted to connect velocity with an object’s mass. His work on this has made the Persian acknowledged the father of the theory of momentum. Later Latin texts also claim he saw that the only source of heat was from moving objects.

While he did understand that the speed of light was finite, he was pretty wrong with his ideas on optics, providing an incorrect theory on the source of rainbows at one point.
Avicenna.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 17 May. 2010 <>.

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