Recreational Marijuana Data Integrity Verification

Recreational Marijuana Data Integrity Verification

Paul Andreas Fischer

1/19/2017

 

Recreational Marijuana Data Integrity Verification




The purpose of this effort to maintain cybersecurity will be to identify trends in community activity, usage, and coding on three webpages. This will be measured in a weighted per capita membership inclusive of adjustment for last month marijuana usage according to statistics of diagnoses of marijuana use dependency in the last year sourced through the National Institute of Health, statistical significance testing for key HTML or python coding which may be present on the pages ranging from common use terms such as margin and italic/bold to design oriented coding such as getOptions and fix, and finally using a theoretical W3C validation scheme borrowed from a co-operative effort by employees of Drop-box, Google, and Mozilla.

An effort throughout will be made to avoid redundancies in data and to reduce reliance on contingent terminology in order to establish statistical significance in further analysis. While this will not be used to justify any legal actions or hold significant ramifications for user, community, or legislative individuals or groups due to the hypothetical nature of the theories of security fundamental to the arguments provided, the data may be accessed and used publicly and reproduced. As with all research looking at differences in data, change over time will be critical to determining whether this is an appropriate sequence to validate the integrity of the media distributed. This data is accessed legally under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act as encryption research to enhance secure methods of encryption technologies (section 1201(g)), to measure and protect personal privacy (section 1201(i)), and security testing should readers wish to check their own computer, computer system, or computer network (section 1201(j)).






Data results


Per capita membership or following:




Conservative estimate,

Vermont Community, Vermont Collection, Colorado Community

.085%, .075%, .6%


Keyword search statistical significance test from raw test raw data with high-end tail comparison




“input” – Vermont Community, Vermont Collection, Colorado Community

“_” –  8335, 8933, 8816

“”” – 10,916, 11,181, 10,670

“head” – 48, 49, 49

“fix” – 12, 12, 15

“array” – 108, 110, 108

“marijuana” – 41, 57, 21

“cannabis” – 37, 29, 4

“meta” – 22, 21, 22

“content” – 240, 252, 259

“function” – 2264, 2256, 2264

“getOptions” – 3, 3, 3

“window” – 420, 417, 420

“element” – 125, 125, 125

“null” – 5226, 5489, 4582

“try” – 155, 159, 158

“dump” – 53, 54, 53

“exec” – 51, 51, 51

“recreational“ – 16, 24, 17

“google” – 183, 181, 205

“script” – 79, 75, 79

“true” – 151, 160, 127

“$” – 284, 284, 284


Theoretical Validation Scheme


This scheme has been chosen because it allows authentication of not only the server, which is standard in such attempts, but also the content which has been posted to the respective pages. With a variety of pegged user handles and other contributions involved in the creation and maintenance of a controlled substance which is limited in distribution to those over a certain age, and in some locations can be met with severe legal repercussions, there is an intrinsic value to vetting cyber information.

In order to avoid such misunderstandings, a thorough read through of all source data was initiated and completed with the following results. Rather than sifting through user data or implementing a cryptographic hash system recommended in the theoretical scheme, evaluating the cross-origin data leakage to identify reconnaissance activities by potential or real attackers was initiated (SRI, 5.3). This is both non-intrusive, experimental, and potentially more accurate for the purposes of identification than traditional methods of code evaluation.


Discussion of data, results and conclusions


Cannabis Use Rates and Trends




The growth in Colorado is under 30% in recent years, marking a substantially larger presence than has been found in Vermont. Statistical analysis found ratios of 1:1.25:1.5 from .2% of the total populations of the respective states in the Vermont Collection, Vermont Community, and Colorado Community that were admitted to the hospital for potential marijuana dependent symptoms according to a recent update from the White House which cites data from 2010. Multiplied by a cohort with an average life expectancy of 78 years, this data could encompass almost 60% of current marijuana users. This could also comprise the entirety of the population have used before entering High School, according to a report released by the UN in 2014.

A statistically interesting point that is not addressed in this paper is that the trend for admission for marijuana related episodes shows a dramatic variance in those two populations, as the number of marijuana users per capita was about 30-40% higher in Colorado at the time. Potential explanations include the presence of higher potency marijuana in Vermont due to lack of effective regulations during the transition period of decriminalization. Another could be adulterants such as lead which decrease the flashpoint at which a joint or a bowl is lit, increasing the temperature at which smoked material is absorbed or the popularity of edibles which may be more potent than a smoked product, as there are nearly a third more tobacco users in Colorado per capita than Vermont.


Keyword search with statistical significance analysis




A perfect match was reached in four of 22 source code searches, nearly 20% of the total results. Taken as an outlier result, this demonstrates definite significance. Two of three quantitative forms found a perfect match in exactly half of the searches. The natural odds of these events occurring are one over 4.2 times 100,000,000. This determines that there is a high probability of interactivity occurring between these web-based pages.

While there are no prohibitions between communications of two online communities, this can also serve as a template to verify that such communication is not occurring between any of the communities and communities tailored towards those who underage. It is also a possible indicator of a malware presence, which could include a BOTNET, synthetic code injector algorithm, sniffing agents or most likely a combination of all of the above. In order for any confirmed statements to be made with only a statistical analysis, causal proof of intent of harm or defamation and malware cyber-activity must be demonstrated. To accomplish this, an experimental form of subresource integrity is being modified and taken advantage of, referred to above as cross-origin data leakage.


DIV and Cross-Origin Data Leakage




The initial read-through looked great, though there is a major qualification which ought to be addressed present one time only in all three communities that likely represents a violation of amendments to the CFAA in 1984. Due to recent legislation and expansion of that act, these consequences could be quite serious if not administratively addressed and the responsible posts promptly deleted, though no legal responsibilities exist unless the display represents an extension or whole of a small business. Colorado had significantly greater evidence of hash use, but all three communities/collection presented enough to provide a strong sense of security. Cross-origin analysis demonstrated that “content-originated” was indeed activated upon execution of the HTML. No flag presented or evidence of any tampering of any kind.

Further analysis of the entirety of the source code, around 30 solid pages for each community, revealed the presence of a flag which discontinues the cross-origin protections and which could allow a JSON style attack, gaining access to passwords or other confidential credentials. This should allow a violation of the “same-origin” policy and may have been used to determine what content is present within the cross-origin resource. Whether this setting is coded on or off, the threat level is ultimately low.


Valuation of any Potential Threat to the Pages




A discretionary valuation of a low threat level had to be ultimately determined as users accessing the site are still protected by Google security and terms of use, i.e. dedication to privacy outlined above in this document and codified in recent US law for cyberspace, as well as amendment to the Constitution. The presence of an “Anonymous” omission of cross-origin protections is present at one time in the HTML code of all three websites. That does not indicate that the tool has been exploited. Unless there is an experimental lab underway through Google, the only data which should be accessible in the event of a general breach throughout the company would be the user names and profiles of individuals who are on the pages.

However, the possibility that it is a “wait and see” placement should be treated with caution as well as corrective measures should be taken to eliminate the offensive code from the pages. It is worth mentioning, once again, that the only parties which have any liabilities for such a piece of code are those who posted the sequence and any small business owners involved with the pages that may have turned a blind-eye or aided the malware. Possible legal explanations which could indicate that one did not know about updates to the CFAA or if the code had been prepared before 1984 may be possible, but even if it is the case, does not mean that the threat or potential threat should not be snuffed immediately.




References:


Braun, F., Akhawe, D., Weinberger, J., & West, M.. Subresource integrity. W3C working draft. (2014).

The Digital Millennium Copyrights Act. 17 U.S.C. § 512 (1998).

Kesteren, A. van. Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/access-control/). W3C (2014).

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Recent statistics and trend analysis of the illicit drug market. (2014).

W3C Recommendation. HTML5, A vocabulary and associated APIs for HTML and XHTML, W3 (2014).

Preliminary Research Investigating Cramping and Prefrontal Cortex Activity in Healthy Volunteers Controlling for Administration of THC or CBD, as well as Voluntary Exercise

Preliminary Research Investigating Cramping and Prefrontal Cortex Activity in Healthy Volunteers Controlling for Administration of THC or CBD, as well as Voluntary Exercise

  So the problem is pretty simple in outlook. Cannabidiol is legal for recreational use in the United States currently, but has not been recognized particularly as having medical applications and it may not even be an option to prescribe it. There is a body, which is appropriate for the potential of the product in its anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties, which are confirmed, of evidence which suggests it has use for athletes and people with medical diagnosis to improve with cramping symptoms and pre-frontal cortex activity, respectively as well as other symptoms of illness (Ashton). This research has not been done with healthy volunteers in the United States of America, but Germany and other member states of the European Union appear to have such research underway.
  This research includes applications for use with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is not believed to have an effect on the pre-frontal cortex in a reproducible manner, except through childhood use as cited in previous research. No studies have used children that I have been involved in, to the best of my knowledge, though there is a substantial body of evidence regarding the impacts of THC on growth in children. Regular underage use as established by research on the topic of THC was not extant in this trial and the earliest confirmed exposure was between 15 and 17, though a couple to a maximum of three solitary experiences or exposures are strongly suspected before. Alcohol is not believed to have been used in a manner which should impact research currently, and has not been a factor in recent research, with last exposure occurring nearly four years ago.
  At the beginning of July 2016, after 3-6 months without cannabis exposure, which was confirmed by UA analysis and no believed CBD exposure though there is no way to confirm that, given current resources readily available, cramping was experienced while swimming, as has been normal for the subject as an excellent athlete and created periods of significant pain. This is exacerbated by a preliminary diagnosis of degenerative disc disease in 2013, and could have been dangerous to the life of the subject with long-term physical activity without proper actions or steps taken ahead of time.
  Rude behavior at this point is believed to be indicative of lapses in prefrontal cortex judgement, albeit minor, and this is the sort of information which will be advisable to collect for recreational marketing studies with the new and fascinating product cannabidiol along with cramping and muscle soreness. The research now includes confirmed exposure to THC in a healthy volunteer with peak levels of nearly 700 ng/ml in urine analysis as well as intensive exercise. This was not an intended level, and there may have been issues with the testing, and a confirmed negative was believed to have occurred after one month using urine analysis. A similar social encounter can be confirmed during this period without a rude or socially unacceptable response.
  Following one month without exposure to THC and with exposure to CBD, the trial was run again with expected exposure to THC and no significant amounts of CBD over the course of some weeks at which point cramping cramping did ensue. Investigating further, a similar social interaction, all of which regard positive rewards naturally, produced a rude response. This indicates that the benefits to the prefrontal cortex are not due to THC but cannabidiol.
  It should be clear that a trial without CBD, THC, or exercise using these same measures is still missing in order to obtain a clear baseline, so this research has been classified as preliminary in nature. As a person in severe pain without use of CBD, I do not believe it to be ethical to require this study be carried out by myself. If you would be, as a person who is not using marijuana, constituent compounds, or activities and substances which have been shown in research to have any impact on the measures being evaluated in this study, so kind as to fulfill this study and to cease regular activity for between one week and one month in order to complete this study, while noting cramping and prefrontal cortex activity indicators, it would be helpful to me. Should a description of the experience be acceptable then it might be possible to provide this research in conjunction with the work so far. Dietary factors are being intentionally excluded, and are not believed to be a factor, as even consumption of food shortly before intensive physical activity did not induce cramping with use of CBD, although combined with necessitated dehydration over the course of relatively short time period did result in physical activity related nausea, no other serious complications had to be recorded.
References:
Ashton, C. H., and P. B. Moore. “Endocannabinoid system dysfunction in mood and related disorders.” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 124.4 (2011): 250-261.

Could Failure to use Marijuana Responsibly for 5-6 Years as an Adult Pose the Same Mental and General Health Risks as Childhood Use or Even Failure to Exercise?

Could Failure to use Marijuana Responsibly for 5-6 Years as an Adult Pose the Same Mental and General Health Risks as Childhood Use or Even Failure to Exercise?

  Recent research has confirmed findings from the early 2000s which showed an increase in IQ among responsible adult users of marijuana in comparison to those who never used cannabis. While childhood use has been shown to be indicative of negative health consequences concurrent with reduced prolactin levels, looking into the effects of marijuana as a predictor or causal agent in positive health effects outside of the realm of cancer prevention has been relatively untilled ground. That builds on previous research which explored the possibility of using cannabis to reduce levels of dependence on other products with responsible adult use, even as childhood use has been proven to negatively impact the odds of responsible adult use. This paper will review some of the basic facts which longitudinal studies have demonstrated as an effect of responsible adult marijuana use, and how those effects can play out on a society while evaluating some very glaring inconsistencies or limiting factors which have presented.
  The impact of IQ on income and social class has been long established and is well publicized in today’s highly technological global community. Less known are its predictive values for life expectancy and more severe mental health complications. Childhood IQ can predict mortality between groups with great discrepancies (Whalley). Lower childhood IQ has been associated with many mental health issues, though it has been shown to predict a lower rate of adult mania, an interesting anomaly which may merit some attention but does not disturb the nature of this trend (Koenen). While the impact of changes in IQ from adult or childhood use of marijuana, whether positive or negative, on life expectancy are minimal, paling in comparison to regular physical activity, which can add as much as a decade, or somewhat akin to tobacco use, shown to remove 1-2 years (Ferrucci), among a population these changes can demonstrate a viable advantage which should not be overlooked.
  A horizontal shift in IQ can double the highly gifted and geniuses among a society with an average IQ of 98, such as the USA, and will continue to produce significant gains as IQ increases. Massive gains have been seen in the past (Flynn), with many factors that can be held responsible from removing environmental toxins such as lead to increased availability of educational factors which can play roles. The gains which are being described have yielded greater total and proportional numbers of college and high school graduates, which is yielding advantages to all spectrums of society (Moretti). There is no reason this trend should not remain the case.
  Responsible adult use of marijuana has been shown to increase IQ in a causal fashion (Fried) in a manner equivalent to the decline in IQ associated with childhood use. Heavy use is here substituted with childhood use because of later research which showed that the probability of becoming dependent on marijuana are around half of that of alcohol at age 18 and virtually zero by age 21 (Chen). Recent research has shown that the increase in IQ is a causal consequence of cannabis exposure, and not one of a predictive nature, a conclusion largely apparent from research (Filbey). That was research which also helped to investigate some of the mechanisms behind higher brain functioning. This would appear to now be a manner of basic deductive reasoning to see that this increase in IQ also will give a concrete benefit to society with responsible adult use encouraged by the spreading legalization of recreational marijuana.
  Some problems have presented, however, and many of the same issues which have negatively impacted attempts to prohibit cannabis now impede an honest recommendation of use for the purpose of mental health at least, though the anti-cancer properties appear to be solid in nature. Many mental health disorders are accompanied by self-inflicted harm, hard drug use, and other certain outcomes which leads to a negative stigma and a serious approach towards treatment. Early childhood use has been shown, commiserate with a declining IQ and mental functioning, to increase such negative outcomes along with other negative physical and mental effects including decreased mortality (Manrique). Interestingly, however, responsible adult use has “only” been found to result in equivalent outcomes among responsible adult users as those who had never used in all methods of evaluation including hard drug use and mortality from all causes (Andreasson).
The research outlined previously does not indicate any limiting factors which should be present in regards to mental health or life expectancy concerns: all countries involved in such research do have room for improvement which far outweighs any contribution from cannabis use of virtually any nature. It is unlikely that there is an organization responsible for the wholesale massacre of 1-2% of the marijuana using community, or slightly early termination of individual marijuana users that could explain the lost additional productivity, life expectancy, and mental health gains which are to be expected in any country, much less the developed countries where this research has taken place, so this particular confounding situation will have to stand as an anomaly or unexplained phenomenon. That statement may appear provocative and the latter precludes the former. Should the former be the case, the mental health gains would still be evident without a targeted shock among the mentally ill. There could also be an issue with multiple research studies, notably the work of Whalley, which would alter this conclusion should heightened IQ not causally impact greater life expectancies, or perhaps most likely, that the Swedish researchers led by Andreasson vastly overestimated the use of marijuana by the conscripts in their study, with heavy use occurring in childhood users but without the vast numbers of extraneous responsible adult users in excess of the childhood users which present in the USA, and naturally with a substance of the type. That is deemed as most likely due to the tendency of European cultures to expose younger children to age-restricted substances than in America, at least. The nature of a bell curve does indicate that the lower tail of IQ performance will demonstrate a limited effect on outliers with further horizontal shocks, so the failure to materialize significant declines in hard drug use or self-inflicted harm and other indicators of lower intellect are not outside of expectations and does not indicate confounding material or discrepancies in research.
Finally, some issues have been noted with application of the positive and negative health benefits of cannabis to adults from a financial perspective, in terms of productivity gained. While there is no question that the general economy has fared more effectively in a large part due to intellectual progress and increasing regulations which have made American children and adults healthier, application of this theory has fallen apart when applied to responsible adult users of marijuana (Cerdá). As a group, according to research, the increase in IQ should be easily described as an economic shock, giving a great advantage in terms of productivity and social class. Both of these are frustratingly missing after economic research. Unlike the discrepancy in life expectancy, and perhaps exacerbating that conundrum, there are pieces of information which present to address this situation. Because childhood and responsible adult use are not distinctions made previously in research on health care costs, it must be assumed that the costs of childhood marijuana users tend to be much higher as a result of marijuana dependence and psychological or physical manifestations of this. Therefore, research showing that cannabis users as a population have the same per capita health care utilization as those who have never used could be interpreted to show significant gains among the responsible adult users (Fuster). As health care can make up hundreds of thousands of dollars over a life time, and is among the dominant expenses both for an individual and for the government, this may be communication of the gained productivity from cannabis use to healthier lifestyles or investments, if not more financially frugal decisions.
The research is fascinating and demanding in nature. Seeing the demographic dispersion among groups of people after laboratory or controlled experiments which add a political or social aspect to the work is relatively rare. It can be concluded that responsible adult use of marijuana does indeed result in productivity gains associated with the increased IQ, and equal to the detrimental effects from childhood use. These gains in the current population of marijuana users, as a significant minority, are invested heavily into healthcare, though there is a low likelihood that this would continue with a regulated industry, while the trend may remain to some extent. In terms of life expectancy, the results are anything but clear, and this deserves further attention, investigation, or experimentation. While childhood users face increased mortality risks as expected, the responsible adult users live exactly the same lifespan as those who have never used. The 1-2% gap between expected and actual life expectancies is not explained by limits on health care returns: countries have greater life expectancies than the USA. It does not detract from the massive predicted and realized gains of responsible adult users of marijuana in terms of productivity and health care, or tarnish in anyway the great impact legalized recreational marijuana will have on the United States of America and the world in coming years.

References:

Andreasson, S., and P. Allebeck. “Cannabis and mortality among young men A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts.” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 18.1 (1990): 9-15.
Cerdá, Magdalena, et al. “Persistent Cannabis Dependence and Alcohol Dependence Represent Risks for Midlife Economic and Social Problems A Longitudinal Cohort Study.” Clinical Psychological Science (2016): 2167702616630958.
Chen, Chuan-Yu, Megan S. O’Brien, and James C. Anthony. “Who becomes cannabis dependent soon after onset of use? Epidemiological evidence from the United States: 2000–2001.” Drug and alcohol dependence 79.1 (2005): 11-22.
Ferrucci, Luigi, et al. “Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.” American journal of epidemiology 149.7 (1999): 645-653.
Filbey, Francesca M., et al. “Preliminary findings demonstrating latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use onset on cortical architecture.” Developmental cognitive neuroscience 16 (2015): 16-22.
Flynn, James R. “The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978.” Psychological bulletin 95.1 (1984): 29.
Fried, Peter, et al. “Current and former marijuana use: preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ in young adults.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 166.7 (2002): 887-891.
Fuster, Daniel, et al. “No detectable association between frequency of marijuana use and health or healthcare utilization among primary care patients who screen positive for drug use.” Journal of general internal medicine 29.1 (2014): 133-139.
Koenen, Karestan C., et al. “Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the cognitive reserve hypothesis.” American Journal of Psychiatry (2009).
Manrique-Garcia, Edison, et al. “Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts.” BMC psychiatry 12.1 (2012): 1.
Moretti, Enrico. “Estimating the social return to higher education: evidence from longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional data.” Journal of econometrics121.1 (2004): 175-212.
Scallet, Andrew C. “Neurotoxicology of cannabis and THC: a review of chronic exposure studies in animals.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 40.3 (1991): 671-676.
Whalley, Lawrence J., and Ian J. Deary. “Longitudinal cohort study of childhood IQ and survival up to age 76.” Bmj 322.7290 (2001): 819.

Letter from the White House on marijuana legalization:

Letter from the White House on marijuana legalization:

While, “A considerable body of evidence shows that marijuana use, especially chronic use that begins at a young age, is associated with serious health and social problems,” which is not anything to disagree with, “We will also closely monitor implementation of marijuana legalization in individual States” which indicates support for marijuana legalization in states, including our own! In addition support was expressed for research into the medical benefits of marijuana, though it was noted that the FDA had not yet found smoked marijuana (does exclusion of edibles indicate a positive here?) to be suitable as recognized for medical use. This is very positive, and we can look forward to legalization in the near future here in Vermont, along with other states.

A working explanation of how marijuana reduces tumor growth, and healthily modulates calorie intake through selective activation of dopamine receptors:

A working explanation of how marijuana reduces tumor growth, and healthily modulates calorie intake through selective activation of dopamine receptors:

  Marijuana and the active compound inside it, THC, are both known to shrink tumor size and inhibit cancer cell growth, which has been publicized by the federal government in recent publications (Scott). The mechanisms of how this actually occurs are somewhat less clear. The answer appears to be, interestingly enough, in the dopamine receptors. While addictive activities and substances are measured by their effect on DA1 receptors, which constitute the majority of dopamine receptors in the brain, there are actually 5 such subsets of receptors: DA1-5. These smaller groupings or clusters of dopamine receptors are well known to have various physical effects on the body by regulation of hormones and other physical mechanisms
The effect of marijuana on DA1 activation is less than a good meal, sex, alcohol, or a wide range of chemicals as shown in a PBS broadcast and that the effect of marijuana does not impact the widespread DA1 receptors, which are causally and correlatively shown to cause addiction (French), which explains the non-addictive nature of the plant. Understanding the hormonal and physical effects, however, requires further investigation. Activation of DA2 receptors has been shown to reduce prolactin levels, a hormone virtually non-existent in males, but present in females and very high in pregnant females (Poste). This phenomenon is relatively recent, but reduction of prolactin levels as a result of THC administration has been known since the early 1980’s at least (Steger, et al.).
Elevated prolactin levels have been shown to cause a re-activation of tumor growth since the 1960’s at least, and it can be assumed that as a DA2 agonist, marijuana suppresses such re-activation or tumor growth (Pearson, et al.). This is confirmed by a cannabinoid breakdown activation levels on various parts of the brain, classified as cannabinoid receptors which include some DA1 receptors, but also D2 receptors (Consroe). These parts of the brain also contain DA3 receptors, as shown more recently (Stanwood), agonism of which can inhibit Parkinson and tremors (such as epilepsy). Use of dopamine agonists has been shown more recently to encourage new blood vessel growth and inhibit growth of tumors (Goth, et al.), however many available agonists do not act selectively on specific dopamine receptors, but also activate the clusters which constitute the D1 areas of the brain (basal ganglia and other interior parts of the brain). Due to marijuana’s, or THC’s, low activation of D1 receptors (less than a good meal, as mentioned before), this appears to be a non-addictive and safe way to prevent cancer and obesity, which are the two leading killers in the USA after Alzheimer’s related diseases.

Works Cited:

Consroe, Paul. “Brain cannabinoid systems as targets for the therapy of neurological disorders.” Neurobiology of disease 5.6 (1998): 534-551.
French, Edward D. “Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol excites rat VTA dopamine neurons through activation of cannabinoid CB1 but not opioid receptors.” Neuroscience letters 226.3 (1997): 159-162.
Góth, M. I., Hubina, E., Raptis, S., Nagy, G. M. and Tóth, B. E. (2003), Physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the endocrine system. Microsc. Res. Tech., 60: 98–106. doi: 10.1002/jemt.10248
Pearson, Olof H., et al. “Prolactin-dependent rat mammary cancer: a model for man?.” Transactions of the Association of American Physicians 82 (1969): 225-38.
Poste, George, and Stanley T. Crooke. Dopamine receptor agonists. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

Scott KA, Dalgleish AG, Liu WM. The combination of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances the anticancer effects of radiation in an orthotopic murine glioma model. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014;13(12):2955-67.
Stanwood, Gregg D., Irwin Lucki, and Paul McGonigle. “Differential regulation of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors by chronic drug treatments.” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 295.3 (2000): 1232-1240.
Steger, R. W., et al. “Interactions of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with hypothalamic neurotransmitters controlling luteinizing hormone and prolactin release.” Neuroendocrinology 37.5 (1983): 361-370.

The Recreational Marijuana Logic Tree:

The Recreational Marijuana Logic Tree:

Graphic obtained with permissions on Googleplus

Even a tiny bush like this has 1024 individual leaves, here is a logic tree which tries to break down some of the most important points on marijuana legalization:

Recreational Marijuana logic tree:

Marijuana and Crime:
   2 million of 4 million parolees have tried marijuana. 200 million of 350 million Americans have tried marijuana. 16% of prisoners are there solely for marijuana charges, which means that marijuana users commit significantly less crimes than those who do not make the life style choice. While data on intoxication from marijuana use and driving is not complete, the Federal Government has found that the likelihood of marijuana users to be involved in traffic fatalities is approximately the same as the non-using and non-drinking populations.
   Legalization of marijuana is estimated in the first year to have cost the South American Cartels nearly 4 billion dollars. Since 1970, when the majority of marijuana users also used other narcotics, the rate of co-dependence has fallen steadily, with the 50-50 point being reached in the 90’s. The vast majority of marijuana users now use marijuana exclusively. The rate of hard drug use in the nation has also dropped in a similar fashion from 10% to as low as .5%.
Marijuana and foreign policy:
Unlike previous attempts to make marijuana illegal, when supporting foreign fighters in marijuana producing countries offered an incentive for the United States to encourage or foster an illegal trade in marijuana, and rigorously enforce prohibition, today foreign policy goals have changed and these rebels, whether in South American countries that during the cold war may have swung to communism, or in Afghanistan and the Middle East, now do not provide the same incentive to prohibit. In fact, as these organizations have struck against the United States in the past militarily or economically, continued prohibition may be a breach in national security by providing necessary means to acquire funding for enemies of the state. This is especially true in cases in which users are dependent on marijuana, either for medical purposes or as maintenance medication for co-occuring addictions.
Marijuana and Education:
   Marijuana has been shown to increase IQ by a significant amount in current and former users with responsible adult use. This is exemplified by a lower crime rate, and after adjustment for marijuana-related legal or social sanctions, higher educational performance. This has also been causally proven with brain imaging work that shows marijuana increases functional connectivity.
Marijuana and public health:
   Marijuana has been shown to have a protective effect on the lungs and bronchial system. THC has been proven to attack cancer cells, and reduce both the prevalence and the exacerbation of cancer-related disease. While it is true that marijuana consumed as a child (the age the state of Vermont looks to set with legalization is 21, though further research here is being done) will negatively affect bone density in a manner similar to alcohol use over time, this effect is also matched by an increase in bone density with responsible adult use.
   Marijuana has medical benefits for those with terminal illness, which may extend lives significantly. Social discrimination or segregation may have a significant impact on these populations.
Marijuana and dependence or potential for abuse
   Research has shown that marijuana releases slightly less dopamine than a good meal, about half that of a sexual encounter or alcohol use and between 3 and 20 times less than other illegal or prescription narcotics available in the USA. Release of certain dopamine receptors initiated by marijuana use have been proven in adults to have a positive effect on various hormones, while not negatively affecting sperm count or other fertility measures, though in pregnant women some negative effects can be determined.
   It has also been proven that marijuana use acts as a result of the same receptors of the brain that coffee blocks, the adenosine receptors. While low doses of caffeine will reduce the amount of THC cravings, high doses will allow someone to take larger amounts of THC, and feel the need to do so. This is yet to be proven as effective treatment, but has the potential to provide a unique advantage to marijuana that drugs or alcohol do not.
The marijuana community and illegal or unconstitutional discrimination or attacks:
   Production of synthetic THC or spice, a schedule 1 substance, occurred in the United States legally for around 3 years. In 2010 alone over 11,000 Americans were hospitalized pursuant to consumption of the drug, which was classified by the White House as three times to 800 times more addictive than marijuana when they were added to the Controlled Substances Act with the Safety and Innovation Act of 2012. Dozens were killed. This is a direct result of job application urine screening and marijuana prohibition which resulted in use of the substance; many people did not even know this was not legitimate marijuana.
   As noted before, marijuana use is not associated with fatal traffic accidents, but there are states such as Vermont, which have significant (a 5X increase from the national average) and consistently deviant marijuana traffic fatalities, suggesting social discrimination or prejudice in these areas. There are not corresponding states with abnormally low marijuana-related traffic fatalities, suggesting this is not the result of random distribution.
   RICO funds intended for legal prosecution of narcotics cases have been diverted to anti-marijuana lobby efforts. Organizations were found to divert money as well from pharmaceutical corporations to anti-marijuana efforts, in a massive breach of scientific ethics. This resulted in some pseudo-science arising in the anti-marijuana field, which was non-reproducible, something extremely rare in the world of academics and indicative of a massive economic investment in preventing the legalization and regulation of marijuana.

Neurogenesis Suppression in Dentate Gyrus Induced by Moderate to Heavy Nicotine Use Finally Shown to Have Negative Impact on Memory Functions?

Neurogenesis Suppression in Dentate Gyrus Induced by Moderate to Heavy Nicotine Use Finally Shown to Have Negative Impact on Memory Functions?

There is a stereotype that marijuana smokers have hazy or weak memories as a result of their use. Tobacco smoke, on the other hand, is usually discussed in terms of the positive effect on cognition by virtue of the very mild stimulant effects delivered by nicotine. Over a decade ago, however, researchers in Nice, France showed in rats that administration of nicotine, without smoke, induced a suppression of new neuronal births in the dentate gyrus, the part of the brain that handles about 90% of a person or animal’s memories. In the last decade as well, researchers from the Chinese Military, Canada, and Maryland have shown that marijuana actually encourages the birth of neurogenesis in the hippocampus (which is responsible for most remaining memories) by 40%, when a pure THC copycat chemical, named for Hebrew University where the compound was made, is administered to rats. Researchers at Princeton University and the Department of Nutrition in Brazil also showed that there was no effect from THC on the dentate gyrus of rats, even at levels producing “gross behavioural intoxication”.

This provides a general understanding of the effect of THC on the brain, which should be reproducible in human or population studies which have been conducted. More recent brain scans have also shown this to be true as conducted with human populations, with negligible changes, positive or negative, found in most parts of the brain, though functional connectivity has also been shown to increase in a significant manner with marijuana use this last year.

Most recently, a study from Spain claimed that while virtually every mode of behavioural measurement was equal between marijuana smokers and control groups, a significant (though still within the realm of normal fluctuation) decrease in memory function was noted. This speaks in the face of research that has been conducted about THC or the marijuana that contains it. Even with patients using 10 times the responsible adult use in the sample, and the average number of marijuana cigarettes, or spliffs, smoked in a lifetime being around 42,000 (with one participant smoking over a massive 256,000 times) among those included in the study, the results do not match with rats who were administered high levels of THC; the results should have been positive and not negative.

There is a difference between the human and rat studies, though which is not addressed. In the Spanish study, noting a decrease in memory function, the research explicitly emphasizes that tobacco users were not omitted from the study, and about 75% of the participants were actively smoking tobacco when the study was conducted.

A little background, for the American marijuana user, is necessary. In Europe, people smoke spliffs generally made with hashish and tobacco. The unfiltered smoke doubles the nicotine intake (in some countries there are lower limits on nicotine levels, but in Spain this probably means quite similar to American cigarettes, as there has not been a strict concentration of absorbed nicotine enforced throughout the European Union yet), and this dominates the marijuana culture there. While more efficient, this also means that it is very difficult to smoke marijuana regularly without crossing the threshold of 5-10 mg of nicotine daily at which point positive effects are eclipsed by neurogenesis suppression, assuming the user is smoking on work breaks or at certain timepoints and not regularly throughout the day (the research indicates that doses of more than 3-5 mg of nicotine in the blood at a time is the crossover point from positive to negative effects).

The research in Nice, France, which originally shows the negative impact of moderate to heavy nicotine use on the dentate gyrus, emphasizes that further research is needed to confirm this neuronal difference actually translates to a cognitive change. Research from Riba et al. should be used in conjunction with other research done in this field to confirm this fact, as has been shown above. It is still worth investigating the impacts of age, obviously at certain ages nicotine has a positive effect, while it can be assumed that while a brain is developing such stunting of neurogenesis must induce extreme cognitive defects. For those concerned about absorbing too much nicotine, in the last 70 years absorbed nicotine in cigarettes has increased almost 3-fold in the USA (though in some parts of Europe the composition of a cigarette is much the same as in the early days of the tobacco industry) as companies and governments attempt to limit tar or air pollution intake (read previous research on cancer mortality and smoking for more), one viable option is to use pipe tobacco instead of cigarette tobacco. While the curing process for pipe tobacco means there is more nicotine per gram in the cigarette or bowl, the wide cut of the leaves lowers absorbed nicotine by around 13 times (or 2-4 times in comparison to low nicotine European cigarettes). Normal use of pipe tobacco is also associated with levels of cancer and smoking-related disease more similar to the general population than to the cigarette smokers.
Works Cited:

Abrous, Djoher Nora, et al. “Nicotine self-administration impairs hippocampal plasticity.” The Journal of neuroscience 22.9 (2002): 3656-3662.

Filbey, Francesca M., et al. “Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain.”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.47 (2014): 16913-16918.

Jiang, Wen, et al. “Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic-and antidepressant-like effects.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 115.11 (2005): 3104.

Kochman, Linda J., et al. “Despite strong behavioral disruption, Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not affect cell proliferation in the adult mouse dentate gyrus.” Brain research 1113.1 (2006): 86-93.

Ling, H. W., and CB Wynn Parry. “The amount of nicotine absorbed in smoking.” British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy 4.3 (1949): 313-314.

Riba, J., et al. “Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories.” Molecular psychiatry (2015).

Marijuana may not only protect against lung damage, but also help nicotine product users regulate or quit their product, and has the potential to aid with other chemical dependencies.

Marijuana may not only protect against lung damage, but also help nicotine product users regulate or quit their product, and has the potential to aid with other chemical dependencies.

One of the most persistent reasons that people favor marijuana use, legalization, and regulation is due to the assertion that smoking marijuana does not do damage to the lungs, while tobacco smokers have a high certainty of dying from their habit. While the claims have been modulated to some extent, this assertion has held true in cohort studies of medical and recreational marijuana use in California, and attempts to determine causality actually found that the smoke from marijuana offers a protective effect to the lungs of users.

Something that has not been addressed as fully, is the impact of THC on the brain and fighting addiction. Nicotine is among the most addictive substances in the world when taken in amounts of 15-20 mg per day and greater for an extended period of time, the threshold for chemical dependence. It has also been shown to do damage to the dentate gyrus of the brain, which contains about 90% of the brain’s memories, at these levels of intake.

Marijuana smokers experience an increase in functional connectivity in the brain, which has been causally associated with an increase in IQ. The dentate gyrus is among the parts of the brain which experience elevated levels of neurogenesis as a result of exposure to an active compound in marijuana, THC. Recent research conducted at Duke University found that tobacco smokers who were able to quit experienced elevated levels of connectivity in the brain as well, while those who relapsed or became heavier smokers tended to lack this connectivity.

This research is of extreme importance as both nicotine products and other addictive substances or pharmaceuticals grip many users in this country. While it is important to make these activities less addictive, for example by limiting the amount of nicotine in a dose, ironically enough the opposite of what manufacturers of cigarettes did decades ago (though to be fair this may have been a simple reaction against hyperbolic at the least and malevolent or unfounded research at the worst targeted at tobacco), or educating people about what level of intake can be diagnosed as chemically dependent, and should be seen as a warning sign of addiction (as a good doctor will do with any prescription), it is also important to develop methods of ensuring successful recovery in the event of chemical dependence.

While marijuana has been prescribed before prohibition, and has a cultural connotation as a substituting product allowing people with chemical dependence to recover past withdrawal for centuries, the nature of its medical value is just starting to be explored now. Of particular interest is whether the factors affecting recovery for nicotine can contribute to recovery from other substances; research carried out suggests that the underlying genetic factors behind addiction are “highly correlated” at the least. Using brain scan technology to see this effect will be exciting at the least, and this particular vein of research is among the most enticing for public health.

Works Cited:

Abrous, Djoher Nora, et al. “Nicotine self-administration impairs hippocampal plasticity.” The Journal of neuroscience 22.9 (2002): 3656-3662.

Addicott, Merideth A., et al. “Increased Functional Connectivity in an Insula-Based Network is Associated with Improved Smoking Cessation Outcomes.” Neuropsychopharmacology (2015).

Filbey, Francesca M., et al. “Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain.”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.47 (2014): 16913-16918.

Fried, Peter et al. “Current and Former Marijuana Use: Preliminary Findings of a Longitudinal Study of Effects on IQ in Young Adults.” CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal 166.7 (2002): 887–891.

Doweiko, Harold. Concepts of chemical dependency. Cengage Learning, 2011.

Hashibe, Mia, et al. “Marijuana use and the risk of lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: results of a population-based case-control study.” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 15.10 (2006): 1829-1834.

Jiang, Wen, et al. “Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic-and antidepressant-like effects.” Journal of Clinical Investigation 115.11 (2005): 3104.

Kempker, Jordan A., Eric G. Honig, and Greg S. Martin. “Effects of Marijuana Exposure on Expiratory Airflow: A Study of Adults who Participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Study.” Annals of the American Thoracic Society ja (2014).

Kendler, Kenneth S., John Myers, and Carol A. Prescott. “Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine dependence.” Archives of General Psychiatry 64.11 (2007): 1313-1320.

Ling, H. W., and CB Wynn Parry. “The amount of nicotine absorbed in smoking.” British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy 4.3 (1949): 313-314.

Letter to Patrick Kennedy regarding conversation at Smart Approaches to Marijuana

Hello,
Regarding our conversation at the SAM conference this summer: I was lucky to have qualified my statements with illegal and decriminalized marijuana in relation to my research. I did indicate that further results from fully legalized areas and places of further research were being waited on. Since the conversation, the confounding factor of the toxoplasmosis gondii being extant in many marijuana smokers in places with home grow operations has forced a reconsideration of the numbers and statistics available. This parasite is responsible for the perceived negative impact of marijuana in countries that fail to complete proper legal research in keeping with UN treaties in effect currently. In Canadian and other studies have conclusively shown with virtually no room for error that marijuana use is associated with a 5 point increase in IQ in current smokers and 3.5 points in former smokers. This translates to literally trillions of dollars in lost intellectual property as can be seen in Germany where marijuana use among 18-24 year olds has quadrupled to nearly 28% while the economy has ballooned to nearly the same size as the United States while alcohol use has dropped dramatically. In MRI and SPECT scans the positive effect of marijuana when disambiguated from those infected with the common parasite, along with pesticides or other factors including income, has been concretely shown in Dallas and other university academic studies. There is some research to indicate that a compound from marijuana may mitigate the effects of alcohol, but this research is still in its infancy, at this time in the 45% of America that drinks, it can be associated with a drop in IQ of several points in comparison to a non-user, and many points in comparison with marijuana users. For the time being, this is a national security crisis in which every year 150,000 people are needlessly dying from alcohol related deaths. To put this in perspective, this is more than all military deaths in all American wars since the Korean war combined, every year. Furthermore we are unable to compete on a global scale as other nations, including Germany, with smaller populations are able to perform on a higher level than the United States. An increase of 5 points in IQ translates to 100’s of % more geniuses and double the number of highly gifted in the population. We have made significant progress with industrial hemp legalization, which increases CO2 consumption by 4X that of other plants and can potentially offset global warming while increasing our energy independence. It is time to take these gains to other fields as well.
Legally, prosecution of marijuana is unconstitutional and the way it is currently implemented it is in violation of multiple UN treaties. According to our constitution, the supremacy clause in article 6 section ii only takes effect under certain circumstances. The most significant example of this was in the Civil War, when Abraham Lincoln was forced to issue an executive order freeing the slaves before legislation from the federal government could make slavery illegal. Unless it could be argued that marijuana prohibition is more important to national security than 600,000 legal racially defined slaves, this clause should not override pre-existing and later passed state laws in this matter. This has been defended and ratified in multiple state supreme courts in the case of marijuana. Furthermore, in the federal statutes there is a contradiction in the case of marijuana, making prosecution unfeasible and illegal by federal organizations until resolved by a Federal court in an appeal to repeal. The charter of the FDA in the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act of 1938 specifically addresses marijuana and retains classification from the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 which classifies marijuana and alcohol together as dangerous drugs with a high potential for poisoning and to be regulated by the FDA. This process was ironically pressed by conservatives in the implementation of Medicare and Medicaid long ago, and it is probable that with a federal court’s review of such an appeal that the older law would be amended with the exception of marijuana, in any case until this happens government agencies would be very amiss to fail to follow medical advise.
Finally, marijuana has been proven to stop cancer. This is the leading cause of death in the United States and research has shown that molecules in marijuana directly harm cancerous human cells while avoiding healthy ones. My own grandfather passed away last summer after living what the AMA has recommended as a healthy lifestyle for most of his life. It is time for the United States to embrace marijuana and tell the alcohol industry to take some time on the back burner until that 200 billion dollar sore on the American economy has been developed into a beneficial product.
Sincerely,
Paul Andreas Fischer

Letter to Sven Andreasson on his longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts and confounding data

Hello,
I have done some research in nuclear medicine on this subject and there are a number of confounding factors that I believe you have left criminally unaccounted for in your research. To begin with, in states with legal marijuana, such as Canada, use of 5 grams and less per day is associated with an increase in IQ of 5 points. My own research in nuclear medicine looking at the blood flow of the brain supports this, after half a pack of marijuana cigarettes over 6 months most of my brain was normal, with one area with increased activity. According to MRI studies there has been little change in the brain observed, though conclusive evidence exists that the size of the amygdala increases and some indication that the part of the brain associated with addictive behaviour becomes less prominent, here a benefit, though this was not substantial enough to say for certain. Ultimately, biologically what is claimed about marijuana in this longitudinal study is in conflict with studies in Canada that had a high level of accuracy that followed users from 12-17 to 25 and later points in life as well as the most recent SPECT and MRI imaging studies.
The most important confounding piece of evidence does not rely on new technology, or different methodology, however, and it is quite sad that this was not accounted for in this expensive research costing the Swedish government severely. According to the CDC the majority (between 65% and 86%) of schizophrenia can be attributed to the parasite toxoplasmosis gondii. To suggest that something without a logical biological explanation is responsible when it is quite simple how the microbe targets brain and muscle tissue to lay its eggs and the body’s protective cysts disrupt bloodflow is quite unethical. The explanation for how it goes in uneven amounts in marijuana users is quite simple, a cat defecating into a potted marijuana plant will contaminate the product for up to a year later.
I do not know the statistics in Sweden off the top of my head, but in the United States 22.5% of people are infected in their lifetime with t. gondii. Of these 25% (5-6% of the general population) get flu-like fatigue and fever, other psychotic symptoms for one week to as long as a month or three months. 6% will have latent symptoms, lasting longer than 6 months and will be diagnosed as schizophrenic. This is the majority of the 1.2% diagnosed with schizophrenia in the USA. It is dose dependant, and getting exposed to the parasite later in life or going thru a period of immunosuppression will cause a recurrence of behaviour.
Please provide an addendum to your research as I have done mine (this came up only as I was publishing, at first I thought to say there were some mild changes, nothing significant from marijuana, luckily I had prefaced my research by emphasizing that marijuana was decriminalized or illegal and the results may be different in a legal setting, as they indeed turned out to be) providing for these confounding factors.
Thank you,
Paul Fischer
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