Migrating from NetApp to Windows File Servers with PowerShell – part 1

We are retiring our NetApp filer this year. It was nice knowing you, NetApp. Thank you for the no-hassle performance, agile volume management, and excellent customer support. We will not miss your insane pricing, and subtle incompatibilities with modern Windows clients.

In this multi-part series, I will be sharing PowerShell code developed to assist with our migration. In part one, we will look at bulk copy operations with RoboCopy. In part 2, we will look at a situation where RoboCopy fails to get the job done. In future parts, we will look at automated share and quota management and migration.

Migrating large amounts of data off a NetApp is not particularly straightforward. The only real option we have is to copy data off of the filer CIFS shares to their Windows counterparts. Fortunately, with the multi-threading power utility “robocopy” we can move data between shares pretty quickly. Unfortunately, robocopy only multi-threads file copy operations, not directory search operations. So, while initial data transfers with robocopy take place really quickly, subsequent sync operations are slower than expected. MS also released a utility called “RichCopy” whish supports multi-thread directory searching, but this utility is not supported by MS, and has some significant bugs (i.e. it crashes all the time). What to do?

PowerShell to the rescue! Using PowerShell jobs, we can spawn off a separate robocopy job for each subdirectory of a source share, and run an arbitrary number of parallel directory copies. With some experimentation, I determined that I could run ten simultaneous robocopy operations without overwhelming CPU or disk channels on the filer. Under this arrangement, or file sync Window has been reduced from almost 48 hours to a mere 2.5 hours.

Some tricky bits in the development of this script where:

  • PowerShell jobs and job queuing are critical to completing this script in a timely fashion. Syntax for “start-job” is tricky. See my post on backup performance testing for more comments on working with jobs.
  • Robocopy fails top copy a number of source files. This is mitigated though the use of the “/b” switch (backup mode).
  • The PowerShell cmdlet “receive-jobs” fails to capture output from a variety of job commands unless you assign the job to an object. To reliably capture the output of commands within our jobs, I needed to assign the jobs to our $jobs array.
  • I needed to do some post processing on the log file. In doing so, I needed to find UNC paths for our source filer “\\files”. It is important to remember that, when using regular expressions, “\” is the escape character. So, to match for “\”, we need to enter “\\”. To match for “\\” we need to enter “\\\\”, as in:
     get-content $logfile | select-string -Pattern "\\\\files" | ...
  • Initially I allowed the script to process only one top level directory at a time (i.e. Start with \\files\software, and only proceed to \\files\shared when “software” completes). The problem with this was, I was preventing the script from running an optimal job count. Furthermore, a single hung job could bring the whole script to a halt. To combat this, I start the script by building a master queue array “$q”, which holds all of the directories for which I am going to start a job. The result of using a master queue is a considerable improvement in sustained throughput.
  • When building an array with a loop (i.e. while…) you may have trouble with the first item added to the array if you do not initialize the array before starting to loop. In my case, I needed to initialize “[array]$jobs = @()” before using the array to hold job objects in the “while” loop. Failing to do so caused “$jobs” to become a single job object when the number of jobs was equal to one. Bad news, if you are expecting to use array properties such as $jobs.count, or to call in index of the object (i.e. $jobs[0]).
  • ISE programs like the native PowerShell ISE, or Quest PowerGUI make script development much easier. However, production environments are not the same as the debug environment, so keep these tips in mind:
    1. Log your script actions! Use lots of out-file calls. If you are feeling slick, you can enclose these in “if ($debug)” clauses, and set the $debug variable as a script parameter (which I did no do here).
    2. When running in production, watch the log file in real-time using “get-content -wait”. I know it is not a cool as the Gnu command “tail”, but it is close.
  • Scoping… careful of the “global” scope. Initially I modified the $jobs and $dc variables in the global scope from within the “collectJobs” function. This worked fine in my ISE and at the PowerShell prompt. However, when running as a scheduled task, these calls failed miserably. I changed the calls to use the “script” scope, and the script now runs as a scheduled task successfully.

Below is the script I developed for this job… it contains paths specific to our infrastructure, but easily could be modified. Change the “while ($jobcount -lt 10)” loop to set the number of simultaneous robocopy processes to be used by the script…

# FilerSync_jobQueue.ps1
# JGM, 2011-09-29
# Copies all content of the paths specified in the $srcShares array to 
# corresponding paths on the local server.
# Keeps data on all copy jobs in an array "$q".
# We will use up to 10 simultaneous robocopy operations.

set-psdebug -strict

# Initialize the log file:
[string] $logfile = "s:\files_to_local.log"
remove-item $logfile -Force
[datetime] $startTime = Get-Date
[string] "Start Time: " + $startTime | Out-File $logfile -Append

# Initialize the Source file server root directories:
[String[]] $srcShares1 = "adfs$","JMP$","tsFlexConfig","software","mca","sis","shared"`
	#R25 removed from this sync process as the "text_comments" directory kills
	#robocopy.  We will sync this structure separately.
[String[]] $srcShares2 = "uvol_t1_1$\q-home","uvol_t1_2$\q-home","uvol_t1_3$\q-home",`
[String[]] $q = @() #queue array

function collectJobs { 
#Detects jobs with status of Completed or Stopped.
#Collects jobs output to log file, increments the "done jobs" count, 
#Then rebuilds the $jobs array to contain only running jobs.
#Modifies variables in the script scope.
	$djs = @(); #Completed jobs array
	$djs += $script:jobs | ? {$_.State -match "Completed|Stopped"} ;
	[string]$('$djs.count = ' + $djs.count + ' ; POssible number of jobs completed in this colletion cycle.') | Out-File $logfile -Append;
	if ($djs[0] -ne $null) { #First item in done jobs array should not be null.
		$script:dc += $djs.count; #increment job count
		[string]$('$script:dc = ' + $script:dc + ' ; Total number of completed jobs.') | Out-File $logfile -Append;
		$djs | Receive-Job | Out-File $logfile -Append; #log job output to file
		$djs | Remove-Job -Force;
		Remove-Variable djs;
		$script:jobs = @($script:jobs | ? {$_.State -eq "Running"}) ; #rebuild jobs arr
		[string]$('$script:jobs.count = ' + $script:jobs.Count + ' ; Exiting function...') | Out-File $logfile -Append
	} else {
		[string]$('$djs[0] is null.  No jobs completed in this cycle.') | Out-File $logfile -Append
# Loop though the source directories:
foreach ($rootPath in $srcShares1) {
    [string] $srcPath = "\\files\" + $rootPath # Full Source Directory path.  
	#Switch maps the source directory to a destination volume stored in $target 
    switch ($rootPath) {
        shared {[string] $target = "S:\shared"}
        software {[string] $target = "S:\software"}
        mca {[string] $target = "S:\mca"}
        sis {[string] $target = "S:\sis"}
        adfs$ {[string] $target = "S:\adfs"}
        tsFlexConfig {[string] $target = "s:\tsFlexConfig"}
        JMP$ {[string] $target = "s:\JMP"}
        R25 {[string] $target = "S:\R25"}
    #Enumerate directories to copy:
	$dirs1 = @()
	$dirs1 += gci $srcPath | sort-object -Property Name `
		| ? {$_.Attributes.tostring() -match "Directory"} `
		| ? {$_.Name -notmatch "~snapshot"}
	#Copy files in the root directory:
	[string] $sd = '"' + $srcPath + '"';
	[string] $dd = '"' + $target + '"';
	[Array[]] $q += ,@($sd,$dd,'"/COPY:DATSO"','"/LEV:1"' )
	# Add to queue:
	if ($dirs1[0] -ne $null) {
		foreach ($d in $dirs1) {
			[string] $sd = '"' + $d.FullName + '"';
	    	[string] $dd = '"' + $target + "\" + $d.Name + '"';
			$q += ,@($sd,$dd,'"/COPY:DATSO"','"/e"')
foreach ($rootPath in $srcShares2) {   
    [string] $srcPath = "\\files\" + $rootPath # Full Source Directory path.
	#Switch maps the source directory to a destination volume stored in $target 
    switch ($rootPath) {
        uvol_t1_1$\q-home {[string] $target = "H:\homes1"}
        uvol_t1_2$\q-home {[string] $target = "I:\homes1"}
        uvol_t1_3$\q-home {[string] $target = "J:\homes1"}
        uvol_t1_4$\q-home {[string] $target = "K:\homes1"}
        uvol_t1_5$\q-home {[string] $target = "L:\homes1"}
        uvol_t2_1$\q-home {[string] $target = "M:\homes1"}
        vol1$\qtree-home {[string] $target = "J:\homes2"}
    #Enumerate directories to copy:
	[array]$dirs1 = gci -Force $srcPath | sort-object -Property Name `
		| ? {$_.Attributes.tostring() -match "Directory"}
	if ($dirs1[0] -ne $null) {
		foreach ($d in $dirs1) {
			[string] $sd = '"' + $d.FullName + '"'
			[string] $dd = '"' + $target + "\" + $d.Name + '"'
			$q += ,@($sd,$dd,'"/COPY:DAT"','"/e"')

[string] $queueFile = "s:\files_to_local_queue.csv"
Remove-Item -Force $queueFile
foreach ($i in $q) {[string]$($i[0]+", "+$i[1]+", "+$i[2]+", "+$i[3]) >> $queueFile }

New-Variable -Name dc -Option AllScope -Value 0
[int] $dc = 0			#Count of completed (done) jobs.
[int] $qc = $q.Count	#Initial count of jobs in the queue
[int] $qi = 0			#Queue Index - current location in queue
[int] $jc = 0			#Job count - number of running jobs
$jobs = @()

while ($qc -gt $qi) { # Problem here as some "done jobs" are not getting captured.
	while ($jobs.count -lt 10) {
		[string] $('In ($jobs.count -lt 10) loop...') | out-file -Append $logFile
		[string] $('$jobs.count is now: ' + $jobs.count) | out-file -Append $logFile
		[string] $jobName = 'qJob_' + $qi + '_';
		[string] $sd = $q[$qi][0]; [string]$dd = $q[$qi][1];
		[string] $cpo = $q[$qi][2]; [string] $lev = $q[$qi][3]; 
		[string]$cmd = "& robocopy.exe $lev,$cpo,`"/dcopy:t`",`"/purge`",`"/nfl`",`"/ndl`",`"/np`",`"/r:0`",`"/mt:4`",`"/b`",$sd,$dd";
		[string] $('Starting job with source: ' + $sd +' and destination: ' + $dd) | out-file -Append $logFile
		$jobs += Start-Job -Name $jobName -ScriptBlock ([scriptblock]::create($cmd))
		[string] $('Job started.  Incrementing $qi to: ' + [string]$($qi + 1)) | out-file -Append $logFile
	[string] $("About to run collectJobs function...") | out-file -Append $logFile
	[string] $('Function done.  $jobs.count is now: ' + $jobs.count)| out-file -Append $logFile
	[string] $('$jobs.count = '+$jobs.Count+' ; Sleeping for three seconds...') | out-file -Append $logFile
	Start-Sleep -Seconds 3
#Wait up to two hours for remaining jobs to complete:
[string] $('Started last job in queue. Waiting up to three hours for completion...') | out-file -Append $logFile
$jobs | Wait-Job -Timeout 7200 | Stop-Job

# Complete logging:
[datetime] $endTime = Get-Date
[string] "End Time: " + $endTime | Out-File $logfile -Append 
$elapsedTime = $endTime - $startTime
[string] $out =  "Elapsed Time: " + [math]::floor($elapsedTime.TotalHours)`
	+ " hours, " + $elapsedTime.minutes + " minutes, " + $elapsedTime.seconds`
	+ " seconds."
$out | out-file -Append $logfile

#Create an error log from the session log.  Convert error codes to descriptions:
[string] $errFile = 's:\files_to_local.err'
remove-item $errFile -force
[string] $out = "Failed jobs:"; $out | out-file -Append $logfile
$jobs | out-file -Append $errFile
$jobs | % {$jobs.command} | out-file -Append $errFile
[string] $out = "Failed files/directories:"; $out | out-file -Append $errFile
Get-Content $logfile | Select-String -Pattern "\\\\files"`
	| select-string -NotMatch -pattern "^   Source" `
	| % {
		$a = $_.toString(); 
		if ($a -match "ERROR 32 ")  {[string]$e = 'fileInUse:        '};
		if ($a -match "ERROR 267 ") {[string]$e = 'directoryInvalid: '};
		if ($a -match "ERROR 112 ") {[string]$e = 'notEnoughSpace:   '};
		if ($a -match "ERROR 5 ")   {[string]$e = 'accessDenied:     '};
		if ($a -match "ERROR 3 ")   {[string]$e = 'cannotFindPath:   '};
		$i = $a.IndexOf("\\f");
		$f = $a.substring($i);
		Write-Output "$e$f" | Out-File $errFile -Force -Append