Floor Design for Vegetable Wash, Pack and Storage Areas

Download the PDF Fact Sheet Here!

Introduction

It is easy to ignore the thing beneath our feet, but floors are an important part of produce wash and pack areas that deserve special attention. They can impact efficiency, ergonomics, employee health, worker fatigue, personnel safety, and produce safety.  There are also a number of design features involved with these seemingly simple structures that should be considered1,2.

No two wash-pack areas are the same. Every farm has different needs driven by different crops, scales of production, layout, existing infrastructure, and management approaches.

Smaller market farms may have a very simple, open packshed design consisting of “four sticks and a lid” used primarily during the summer months. The floor of these structures could be anything: a dirt floor, grass, or gravel surface. If you choose to have a dirt floor, consider laying down weed mat or landscape fabric to create a tidy work environment. It is helpful to consider drainage, specifically providing intentional drains from wash tanks and sinks that direct outflow away from the work area, production areas and bodies of water.  The intent is to keep the surface underfoot relatively dry and free of standing water, prevent cross-contamination between drainage water and production areas and to prevent nutrient loading in bodies of water.

Larger farms and those engaged in season extension and winter markets may find benefit from an improved floor, permanent roof and walls.  When scaling up, consider the benefits of an enclosed packshed which can provide:

  • Protection from the elements as you work further into the shoulder seasons. Cooler working environment in the summer for you, your crew, the produce, and your equipment or warmer (if heated) in the fall, winter, and spring.
  • Cleaner environment for handling produce and storing containers. An enclosed space is more “cleanable” as it has doors and windows to keep dust, bugs, birds and other wildlife away from you and your produce.
This farm considered retrofitting a wash/pack room into an existing barn, but opted for the more expensive, but more flexible route of new construction.  The single-story building started with pouring a slab on grade which allowed the inclusion of trench drains. The floor is smooth, but not slippery. Note expansion joints in the floor to prevent cracking.  This building houses the wash/pack area, several coolers, break room, and a retail/CSA space.

There are several different key elements to a floor that you need to take into consideration when designing your new packshed. Continue reading Floor Design for Vegetable Wash, Pack and Storage Areas

Post Harvest Handling & Storage for Small Farms

This presentation was given by Chris Callahan from at the Great Lakes Expo in Grand Rapids Michigan in December 2017. He discusses the differences between fruit and vegetable storage needs, finish surfaces for wash/pack areas or coolers as well as temperature and humidity controls.

 

A frequently asked question we get is about vapor barrier usage in coolers. See Chris’ answer below addressing that question. This video shot is pulled from the above presentation and was shared on our Instagram page.

New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference 2017

In addition to attending the Great Lakes Expo, UVM Ag Engineering attended the New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference in Manchester, NH. This conference is very well suited for the small-scale and highly diversified farmers that populate the North East.

This conference is filled with a variety of vendors at the trade show, presentations covering specific details of individual crops and varieties, and even talks on designing your farm with an eye on food safety. Another interesting activity that went on was the farmer to farmer sessions that are not presentations but a lead conversation to discuss what works and what doesn’t on your farm. A lot of tips, tricks, and common complaints are all brought up and shared during this literally circled up conversation.

If you’ve never been here are a few photos from the event, which was very snowy in mid-December.

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Here is a short highlight video from the conference!

 

The presentations that Chris gave at this conference can be seen below. This first one is all about designing your facilities with a food safety mindset. If you’ve never thought about your infrastructure Continue reading New England Vegetable & Fruit Conference 2017

DewRight Debut: From Product to Patent

This video is an episode from Across the Fence! It holds an interview with Judy Simpson as well as a description of the product.

The video below highlights the 9min segment specifically talking about the DewRight.

Read the write up from Vermont Business Magazine here.

Read the press release from UVM’s University Communications here.

Checking out Vendors at the Great Lakes Expo

In December, UVM Ag Engineering ventured out to Grand Rapids, MI to attend the Great Lakes Expo

This exposition was HUGE and full of a variety of seed companies, equipment suppliers, and machinery on display. There was a lot of technology targeted towards fruit growing which is big in that region which was neat to see.

Photos from the trip can be seen here.

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The following are videos clips taken with vendors explaining some of what they have to offer.

Continue reading Checking out Vendors at the Great Lakes Expo

The AZS Rinse Conveyor at Native Son Farm

Native Son farm is a small diversified vegetable farm in Tupelo Mississippi, who had been washing vegetables by hand and started looking at automated wash lines. With zero experience on automated washing, he began first researching the common barrel washer, reading reviews, and watching videos online. Will Reed reached out to Deerfield Supply out Kentucky who distributed AZS equipment. Upon meeting Harvey from AZS, he learned about the rinse conveyor, which is less aggressive on the crops than a barrel washer. It is also designed with cleaning in mind which has a high level of food safety appeal.

Continue reading The AZS Rinse Conveyor at Native Son Farm

Upcoming Produce Safety Training (November 6-7, 2017)

The Vermont Agency of Agriculture and UVM Extension are co-sponsoring a VT-Style Produce Safety Alliance (PSA) Grower Training on Tue-Wed, November 7 & 8, 2017 (8:30am – 5:00pm) at the VYCC Monitor Barn in Richmond, VT. This is the official required training for FSMA covered farms (Click here to determine whether your farm may be covered or exempt).


The $30 heavily subsidized training fee includes the massive training manual, multiple meals, ample coffee, and the Association of Food and Drug Official (AFDO) certificate (a $130 value—not including space rental or instructor fees!). The AFDO training certificate satisfies FSMA Produce Safety Rule training requirement.

EVERYONE is invited: Regardless of scale, annual sales, or market outlets, all produce growers can benefit from learning about integrating practical produce safety practices on a working produce operation. Technical assistance providers, educators, and regulators are also invited and will benefit from this training. Whether you are a covered farm fully subject to Produce Safety Rule (PSR) regulations, or an exempt farm required to keep certain records related to your exemption, all aspects rule compliance will also be covered during this training.

The Training Schedule at a glance:
Day One (November 7, 8:30am–5:00pm) will provide an introduction to the FSMA Produce Safety Rule, employee health, hygiene and training requirements, and information about management of soil amendments as well as domesticated animals and wildlife. Includes on-farm exploration to apply concepts in the field.
Day Two (November 8, 8:30am–5:00pm) will cover agricultural water, postharvest handling and sanitation, and writing produce safety plans. Includes on-farm exploration to apply post-harvest concepts.

View more details and registration visit:  PSA Training Registration via Regonline

Spring Cleaning – Farm Cooler Checklist

Whether your winter storage rooms are getting bare or you are making the transition from sweet corn to potatoes, what better time to give your cooler a once over than right now? Download the Farm Cooler Checklist to help guide your walk-through.

Highlights include:

  • Cleaning, sanitizing and inspection of surfaces
  • Checking the envelope
  • Inspecting refrigeration equipment inside and out
  • Checking over a CoolBotTM
  • Checking thermostats
  • Confirming drainage
  • Reviewing and possibly upgrading lighting
  • Considering energy efficiency upgrades

Rats (and other rodents)

Download the PDF version of this page here!

When considering storage rooms, wash and pack sheds with growers there is one topic that is sure to strike a nerve: RODENTS.

This document is intended to provide summary information about measures you can take to reduce crop losses from these pests.  It is the result of a review of current literature on the topic and feedback from the Listserv of the Vermont Vegetable and Berry Grower’s Association (VVBGA). This document includes both active measures (traps, rodenticides, FSMA compliant cats and ball pythons, etc.) and passive measures (sealing, doors, packing, hardware cloth, novel construction, accepting the loss, selling everything early). But why are these creatures so challenging?  Here’s some background1:

House Mice Can

  • Enter openings larger than 1/4 inch
  • Jump as high as 18 inches
  • Travel considerable distances crawling upside-down along wire
  • Survive and reproduce at a temperature of 24°F if adequate food and nesting material are available.

Rats Can

  • Crawl through or under any opening higher or wider than 1/2 inch
  • Climb the outside or inside of vertical pipes and conduits up to 3 inches in diameter
  • Jump from a flat surface up to 36 inches vertically and as far as 48 inches horizontally
  • Drop 50 feet without being seriously injured
  • Burrow straight down into the ground for at least 36”
  • Swim as far as 1/2mi in open water, dive through water traps in plumbing, and travel in sewer lines against a substantial water current.

As one grower put it, “To deal with rats, you’ve got to think link a rat!”

Bottom Line

Cleanliness and Sanitation – Keep food sources well contained and sealed up, reduce “harborage” (places they can hide and live including weeds around the edge of a building), minimize available standing water. In short, make it unappealing and uncomfortable for them.

Rodent Deterrent Construction – Keep them out of the building. [References 1-3 provide very detailed guidance and novel, passive and relatively inexpensive construction ideas] Some examples from the references include keeping all wood products like cardboard, roots, or lumber off the ground and away from the building. Installing proper drainage with sand, stone and proper slope away from your building helps reduce moisture which can carry other pests like beetles and termites. Think about your exterior landscaping and its ability to trap moisture against the building. Keeping grass and weeds trimmed won’t leave a place for rodents to hide and travel. Think about all possible points of entry, sills, doors, windows, roofs. Mice can sneak into small holes and cracks so do your best to seal up all possible points of entry.

Population Reduction — Bait, trap, kill.

Using snap traps, sticky pads, poisonous bait are all the most effective ways of dealing with a rodent problem [References 5-7].

Responses from the VVBGA LISTSERV 

The following are responses from Vermont growers. These are some of their challenges and solutions related to rodents on their farms.

  • I have had over 20% of my sweet potatoes damage by voles.  Usually the largest sweet potatoes are the ones half eaten.  The next year I put five “yard windmills” in the sweet potato bed, 100 ft. long, along with a half stick of gum under the black plastic by each plant – cheap gum from the discount food store.  Both were done after I removed the row covers and before the vines spread. That reduced the damage to less than 5%. Very anecdotal and empirical data but worth exploring.  Supposedly the voles do not like vibration of the windmill and eating the gum gives them a bellyache, if fatal I do not know.  Bigger windmills, four inches in diameter and larger, with metal post seem to work better.  How much gum is actually needed I do not know. A SARE  grant in your future.
  • Not the cheapest retrofit, but have had the best luck with making all walls tin or concrete, and having rat traps permanently set at every overhead door jamb, since the seal is not 100%.  Ventilate with in-wall intake and exhaust fans instead of opening doors.
  • I recently tried the tin cats and was happy. Baited them by putting small amount of oats in the trap and tilting it so the grain slid to the end where the screen was. After the mice got a few seed through the screen, they were drawn into the trap to get the remainder. Two mice in the same trap on the first night. The downside is that you have to clean out all the grain each time so it doesn’t hamper the trap mechanism. Have used Contract waxy block in bait stations for at least 4 years. Switching to a different bait because I think they are starting to get a resistance.
  • I’ve been using that old root cellar all winter for 3 years now without any rodent problems. The process of having someone cement hardware cloth over every crack and crevice was time-consuming but really seems to have worked. I think I finally got rid of the rats in my toolshed through a combination of trapping and disturbing their nesting spots. I’m curious about rodent solutions that apply to the field and high tunnel. I’ve tried to keep cats but the fishers get them.
  • I have not had a single animal in the new barn that I built with the 12” concrete knee wall. I partly contribute the success to the fact that I do not set the bins on the ground. They are filled on the trailer and go directly from the trailer to the barn. This reduces the chance that a hitchhiker will take a ride into the barn.

  • We are a very small pumpkin farm and don’t have the storage needs for food, but I use lots of snap traps and dump those little, dead vermin bodies while wearing a happy smile!
  • We have only killed rats by accidentally moving a pallet onto one. Can’t bait them. They are very intelligent.
  • “We have a great barn cat and a Jack Russell terrier for our farm.”
  • Mice – kernel of corn wedged into mousetrap trigger covered in peanut butter. Rats – same as above but do not the set the trap for several nights and remove all other food sources (in chicken hutch empty all food containers) then set the trap.  Putting a milk crate over the trap prevents chickens, cats, dogs from getting caught.  Also works with chipmunks, and occasionally with red squirrels. Voles – hard to trap, run them down and stomp.

REFERENCES

  1. Baker R., Bodman G. and Timm, R. 1994. Rodent-Proof Construction and Exclusion Methods. The Handbook: Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. Paper 27.  http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=icwdmhandbook
  2. Hoddenbach, G., Johnson, J., Disalvo, C. 1997. Rodent Exclusion Techniques. A Training Guide for National Park Service Employees. National Park Service. http://www.ehs.ucsb.edu/files/docs/e
    h/ihrodentexclusion.pdf
  3. Simmons, S. 2005. Pest Prevention Construction Guidelines and Practices. CASBO Journal. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/pestmgt/pubs/casbo_article.pdf
  4. UMass Extension. 2008. Rodent Control on Farms. Fact Sheet – https://ag.umass.edu/sites/ag.umass.edu/files/fact-sheets/pdf/RodentControl08-44.pdf
  5. University of Maryland Extension. 2014. Rodent Control on Small Poultry Farms. Fact Sheet. https://extension.umd.edu/sites/default/files/_docs/publications/FS-
  6. 985%20Rodent%20control%20on%20small%20poultry%20farms.pdf
  7. Pierce, R. 1982. Bait Stations for Controlling Rats and Mice. Fact Sheet G-9444. University of Missouri Extension. http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G9444
  8. Vantassel, S. M., Hygnstrom S. E. and Ferraro, D. M. 2012. Bait Stations for Controlling Rats and Mice. Fact Sheet G1646. https://wildlife.unl.edu/pdfs/bait-stations-controlling-rats-mice.pdf.