## Cows Need Water to Thrive, Not Just Survive

One of the key elements of a successful grazing system is having clean and abundant water available at all times. Just how much is needed? A lactating dairy cow consumes up to 25 gallons of water per day, while a beef cow requires up to 20 gallons. The total amount of water that must be provided is not just dependent on how many animals there are, but also how far animals must travel to the water tub, as well as the distance from the water tub to the water source.

In an intensively managed pasture with water 600- 900 feet away, animals will drink from the water tub individually as they feel like it. The flow rate should be such that the total water demand can be supplied within 4-8 hours. Water tubs should be sized so that 2-4% of the herd can drink at once. This is in contrast to larger, continuously grazed pastures where water is located at greater distances. In these situations, animals tend to go to water as a herd and therefore, the capacity and recharge ability must be greater to accommodate more animals at once.

Here’s an example of how to calculate water needs:

Animals and grazing system: 75 dairy cows in a rotational system

Daily consumption: 75 x 25 gallons = 1,875 gallons

Distance to water in a paddock: less than 900 feet

Tank refill time: 4 hours (240 minutes)

Required flow rate: 1,875 gallons/240 minutes = 7.8 gallons/minute

The flow rate and the distance to the water source (well, pond, etc.) are used to determine the size of the black plastic pipe that will meet the water demand. There are charts and tables available that can help you determine if, for example, 1 inch pipe is sufficient or if a larger diameter pipe is needed. In our climate, water lines in pastures are typically laid on top of the ground, since they are not used in winter, so protection from freezing is not necessary. Lines above the ground are cheaper to install, easier to repair, and are portable. Lines can be buried where they cross vehicle or animal lanes.

When calculating water needs, it is best not to design the system on the absolute minimum requirements. Building in a buffer will account for circumstances such as hot weather, which can double an animal’s water requirements. There are several other factors to consider when designing a water system including topography, type of pump used, pipe layout, and of course, cost. There is a great publication called ‘The ABCs of Livestock Watering Systems’ published by Michigan State University Extension. It can be found at HERE

UVM Extension is offering a 90% cost share program to install infrastructure to encourage livestock exclusion from streams in the Lake Champlain Watershed. If you are considering a water source development project including pipeline, water tanks, and fencing there may be funds available to help. For more information, contact our office at 388-4969.

## Fill Their Rumens, Get More Milk

A: Low Density Pasture = Less Intake

B: High Density Pasture = More Intake

Well-managed pasture can be high quality forage, when the stand is dense, at least 6-8 inches tall, and a mix of grasses, legumes, and herbs. To maintain a pasture-based dairy ration, dry matter intake from pasture must remain high. When this intake is limited, milk production decreases. So what influences how much pasture forage an animal will consume? For starters, a high plant density in the pasture leads to higher intake because the animals don’t have to spend time walking around and nibbling for forage. Instead, they can stand in one spot, taking several bites from a diversity of plants before moving on. With each bite, the cow will be grabbing large mouthfuls of pasture plants. This equates to more rapid rumen fill. Why is this important? There is a limit to how much time a cow will spend grazing each day. Cows also need time for rest and rumination. The less energy a cow has to expend finding food, the better. If she can only take so many bites per day, then those bites need to be as full as possible. Ideally, ruminants will be provided with an abundant, nutrient-dense ‘salad’ each time they go out to graze.

Would you like to get from A to B to maximize your pasture potential? With funding from NRCS, resources are available NOW for grazing system planning. If you would like assistance developing a grazing management plan, contact Cheryl Cesario at 388-4969 x 346.

## Biodiverse Pastures

Improving plant biodiversity in pastures has several benefits. A variety of species in a pasture will give grazing animals a range of plants to eat and provide a buffer against weather and seasonal variability. A combination of grasses, legumes and herbs will provide a mix of shallow-rooted and tap rooted plants, the latter of which will create channels into the subsoil and bring up necessary nutrients. A healthy pasture ‘polyculture’ results in a healthy soil ecosystem, improved water percolation and reduced run-off, which in turn benefits our streams and lakes.

So, how do you improve pasture diversity? One option would be to utilize the no-till drills that the UVM Extension office has purchased and incorporate the species of your choice into your pastures. Seed may be incorporated at 8-14 pounds per acre. An example might be 8 pounds of orchard grass, 4 pounds of ladino clover, and 2 pounds of chicory per acre. Chicory? Yes, but let’s clarify we are talking about forage chicory, which is not the same plant as the one seen growing on our roadsides. Forage chicory is a great plant for mineral nutrition in livestock and is highly digestible. If the goal is to add some legumes to pastures that tend to be on the wetter side, drilling in birdsfoot trefoil or alsike clover may be beneficial. On drier ground, with a neutral pH, alfalfa may be a good choice. Red clover is adapted to a wide range of soil types and is fairly easy to establish either through interseeding or frost seeding.

While there are dozens of commercial pasture seed mixes on the market, they are not all created equally. It’s important to read the seed tags and in many cases more information can be found online. For example, the website for the company of one mix that has been sold locally says, “In climates lower than Zone 4, plants may not overwinter. Persistence can be greatly increased if plants are insulated by snow cover.” Although we are in Zone 4 in the Lake Champlain region, a mix like this may only be marginally hardy here, especially when we have a winter with little snow. Always check that the varieties listed in a commercial mix are appropriate for our climate.

An example of this would be the perennial ryegrasses. It is preferable to select the ‘diploid’ rather than the ‘tetraploid’ varieties, which will increase winter hardiness. This terminology will usually be indicated on the seed tag. Tall fescue is best avoided, as it has palatability issues due to the presence of internal fungi that produce alkaloids. Tall fescue is often found in seed mixes developed for warmer climates. Meadow fescue, however, is a good choice as it is more digestible and is also more winter hardy.

One mix that we have had success with on our farm is a grazing mix described as ‘an excellent choice for high producing dairy livestock and grass-finished beef’. It contains 30% perennial ryegrasses, 30% grazing tolerant orchard grass, 25% meadow fescue, 7% medium red clover, 6% Alice white clover and 2% forage chicory. It’s a great all-around mix with grasses, clovers and the added bonus of the chicory.